Find centralized, trusted content and collaborate around the technologies you use most. Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search. Kind request dont answer if you doesnt know about Z3 solver.
There are some people who developed Z3 solver in this forum. Its Intended to them. If you dont know Z3 solver please avoid to reply for this question. I have posted this question earlier and got solution as in Python. Could you help me to show a solution for below requirement in "C" language not in python. The main differences are: I'm using std::vector instead of lists, and for-loops instead of list comprehensions.
Stack Overflow for Teams — Start collaborating and sharing organizational knowledge. Create a free Team Why Teams? Learn more. Z3 Array in C language not python Ask Question. Asked 9 years, 2 months ago. Modified 9 years, 2 months ago. Viewed times. I want to define and create a two dimensional array as following using z3 solver using C API example : a How to define this using Z3 solver C API where in i need to add constraints such as elements of the two dimensional arrays only 0 or 1.
Improve this question. The long-tailed pair was developed from earlier knowledge of push—pull circuit techniques and measurement bridges. The earliest definite long-tailed pair circuit appears in a patent submitted by Alan Blumlein in Many computers of this time tried to avoid this problem by using only AC-coupled pulse logic, which made them very large and overly complex ENIAC : 18, tubes for a digit calculator or unreliable.
DC-coupled circuitry became the norm after the first generation of vacuum-tube computers. A differential long-tailed, [nb 2] emitter-coupled pair amplifier consists of two amplifying stages with common emitter , source or cathode degeneration. With two inputs and two outputs, this forms a differential amplifier stage Figure 2. The two bases or grids or gates are inputs which are differentially amplified subtracted and multiplied by the transistor pair; they can be fed with a differential balanced input signal, or one input could be grounded to form a phase splitter circuit.
An amplifier with differential output can drive a floating load or another stage with differential input. If the differential output is not desired, then only one output can be used taken from just one of the collectors or anodes or drains , disregarding the other output; this configuration is referred to as single-ended output. The gain is half that of the stage with differential output. To avoid sacrificing gain, a differential to single-ended converter can be utilized.
This is often implemented as a current mirror Figure 3, below. The differential pair can be used as an amplifier with a single-ended input if one of the inputs is grounded or fixed to a reference voltage usually, the other collector is used as a single-ended output This arrangement can be thought of as cascaded common-collector and common-base stages or as a buffered common-base stage.
The emitter-coupled amplifier is compensated for temperature drifts, V BE is cancelled, and the Miller effect and transistor saturation are avoided. That is why it is used to form emitter-coupled amplifiers avoiding Miller effect , phase splitter circuits obtaining two inverse voltages , ECL gates and switches avoiding transistor saturation , etc. To explain the circuit operation, four particular modes are isolated below although, in practice, some of them act simultaneously and their effects are superimposed.
The series negative feedback the emitter degeneration makes the transistors act as voltage stabilizers; it forces them to adjust their V BE voltages base currents to pass the quiescent current through their collector-emitter junctions. The biasing base currents needed to evoke the quiescent collector currents usually come from the ground, pass through the input sources and enter the bases. So, the sources have to be galvanic DC to ensure paths for the biasing current and low resistive enough to not create significant voltage drops across them.
Otherwise, additional DC elements should be connected between the bases and the ground or the positive power supply. In common mode the two input voltages change in the same directions , the two voltage emitter followers cooperate with each other working together on the common high-resistive emitter load the "long tail".
They all together increase or decrease the voltage of the common emitter point figuratively speaking, they together "pull up" or "pull down" it so that it moves. In addition, the dynamic load "helps" them by changing its instant ohmic resistance in the same direction as the input voltages it increases when the voltage increases and vice versa.
As a result, the output collector voltages do not change as well. In differential mode the two input voltages change in opposite directions , the two voltage emitter followers oppose each other—while one of them tries to increase the voltage of the common emitter point, the other tries to decrease it figuratively speaking, one of them "pulls up" the common point while the other "pulls down" it so that it stays immovable and vice versa.
So, the common point does not change its voltage; it behaves like a virtual ground with a magnitude determined by the common-mode input voltages. The high-resistance emitter element does not play any role—it is shunted by the other low-resistance emitter follower. There is no negative feedback, since the emitter voltage does not change at all when the input base voltages change.
The common quiescent current vigorously steers between the two transistors and the output collector voltages vigorously change. The two transistors mutually ground their emitters; so, although they are common-collector stages, they actually act as common-emitter stages with maximum gain. If the input differential voltage changes significantly more than about a hundred millivolts , the transistor driven by the lower input voltage turns off and its collector voltage reaches the positive supply rail.
At high overdrive the base-emitter junction gets reversed. The other transistor driven by the higher input voltage drives all the current. If the resistor at the collector is relatively large, the transistor will saturate.
With relatively small collector resistor and moderate overdrive, the emitter can still follow the input signal without saturation. This mode is used in differential switches and ECL gates. If the input voltage continues increasing and exceeds the base-emitter breakdown voltage , the base-emitter junction of the transistor driven by the lower input voltage breaks down.
If the input sources are low resistive, an unlimited current will flow directly through the "diode bridge" between the two input sources and will damage them. In common mode, the emitter voltage follows the input voltage variations; there is a full negative feedback and the gain is minimum. In differential mode, the emitter voltage is fixed equal to the instant common input voltage ; there is no negative feedback and the gain is maximum. The quiescent current has to be constant to ensure constant collector voltages at common mode.
This requirement is not so important in the case of a differential output since the two collector voltages will vary simultaneously but their difference the output voltage will not vary. But in the case of a single-ended output, it is extremely important to keep a constant current since the output collector voltage will vary. The constant current needed can be produced by connecting an element resistor with very high resistance between the shared emitter node and the supply rail negative for NPN and positive for PNP transistors but this will require high supply voltage.
It is usually implemented by a current mirror because of its high compliance voltage small voltage drop across the output transistor. The collector resistors can be replaced by a current mirror, whose output part acts as an active load Fig. This is achieved by copying the input collector current from the left to the right side, where the magnitudes of the two input signals add. For this purpose, the input of the current mirror is connected to the left output, and the output of the current mirror is connected to the right output of the differential amplifier.
The current mirror copies the left collector current and passes it through the right transistor that produces the right collector current. At this right output of the differential amplifier, the two signal currents pos.
In this case differential input signal , they are equal and opposite. It is possible to connect a floating source between the two bases, but it is necessary to ensure paths for the biasing base currents. In the case of galvanic source, only one resistor has to be connected between one of the bases and the ground.
The biasing current will enter directly this base and indirectly through the input source the other one. If the source is capacitive, two resistors have to be connected between the two bases and the ground to ensure different paths for the base currents.
A simile is a comparison between two unlike things using the words " like, " " as " or " than. My mother is as busy as a bee. They fought like cats and dogs. My dog has a bark as loud as thunder. Her love for her children is as constant as the passing of time. A metaphor is a direct comparison without using the comparative words " like " or " as. Some metaphors, which continue for several lines or an entire piece, are called extended metaphors. Her smile is the sunrise. Your son was a shining star in my classroom.
The tall trees were curtains that surrounded us during our picnic. The ants soldiered on to steal our dessert. Related: Simile vs. Metaphor: What's the Difference? With Examples. Personification is attributing human characteristics to nonhuman things. This personifies objects and makes them more relatable.
The chair squealed in pain when the hammer smashed it. The tree's limb cracked and groaned when lightning hit it. My heart jumped when my daughter entered the room in her wedding dress. The computer argued with me and refused to work.
Onomatopoeia is the use of descriptive words that sound or mimic the noise they are describing. The water splashed all over the top of the car. Owls screech through the night and keep us awake when we are camping. My stomach grumbled in hunger as we entered the restaurant. Thumping and booming in excitement, my heart pounded to hear the results of the lottery. An oxymoron is a description using two opposite ideas to create an effective description.
The format is often an adjective proceeded by a noun. My father's thoughtless idea landed him in the middle of the lake without a life jacket. The jumbo shrimp is a favorite of customers. The loud silence of night keeps him awake. An ever-flowing stillness of water, the river cuts through the woods.
A hyperbole is an over-exaggeration used to emphasize an emotion or description. Sometimes hyperbole also implements the use of simile and comparative words. I am so hungry I would eat dirt right now. My brother is taller than a skyscraper. The concert was so loud the drums echoed in space. Racing through the day was a marathon run for me. Related: 7 Satire Techniques With Tips. Litotes are figures of speech that use understatement to make a point.
It is often sarcastic in tone. The statement is affirmed by negating the opposite. I can't say I disagree with what you're saying. My dog is not the friendliest. He's not even a little tired after staying up all night watching television. She's not unkind. An idiom is a commonly used expression that has acquired a meaning different from its literal meaning. Idiomatic phrases vary by culture and language. In the circuit, the input signals Va,Vb,Vc are applied to the inverting input of the opamp through input resistors Ra,Rb,Rc.
Any number of input signals can be applied to the inverting input in the above manner. Rf is the feedback resistor. Non inverting input of the opamp is grounded using resistor Rm. RL is the load resistor. Since the input resistance of an ideal opamp is close to infinity and has infinite gain.
Scaling amplifier : In a scaling amplifier each input will be multiplied by a different factor and then summed together. Scaling amplifier is also called a weighted amplifier. Here different values are chosen for Ra, Rb and Rc. Summing amplifier in non inverting configuration. A non inverting summing amplifier circuit with three inputs are shown above.
The voltage inputs Va, Vb and Vc are applied to non inverting input of the opamp. The output voltage of the circuit is governed by the equation;.
Now again we know that the inverting input will act as a virtual ground so V1 is dropped across R1 and V2 is dropped across R2. Each input resistor therefor feeds current towards the virtual ground point, R1 has 5mA as before, and R2 has 2mA giving a sum of 7mA.
Rf then develops a volt drop of -7v , which is the output from the Op-Amp. Pingback: How does an op amp in summing amplifier mode work? You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Inverting Amplifier The above shows a standard Inverting-Amplifier configuration.
Follow Following. Op-amp Guru. Sign me up. Already have a WordPress. Log in now. As point B is grounded, due to virtual ground concept the node A is also at virtual ground potential. Now from input side,. Infact in such a way, n input voltages can be added. Thus the magnitude of the output voltage is the sum of the input voltages and hence circuit is called as summer or adder circuit.
Due to the negative sign of the sum at the output it is called inverting summing amplifier. It shows that there is phase inversion. The circuit discussed above is inverting summing op amp, which can be noticed from the negative sign in the equation 6. But a summer that gives non-inverted sum of the input signals is called non inverting summing amplifier.
The circuit is shown in the Fig. Let the voltage of node B is V B. Now the node A is at the same potential as that of B. From the input side, But as the input current of op-amp is zero,.
The inverting and non-inverting inputs are distinguished by "−" and "+" placed in the amplifier triangle. Vs+ and Vs− are the power-supply voltages; they are. Model Enh-Ticha Discrete Operational Amplifier Professional Audio Products Sonic Imagery Labs also can provide a variation of this model that can. Current Series feedback (Non-Inverting Amplifier) Summing Amplifier, Averaging Amplifier Difference Amplifier, Instrumentation Applications.