The culture of Estonia incorporates indigenous heritage, as represented by the Estonian language and the sauna , with mainstream Nordic and European cultural aspects. Because of its history and geography, Estonia's culture has been influenced by the traditions of the adjacent area's various Finnic, Baltic, Slavic and Germanic peoples as well as the cultural developments in the former dominant powers Germany, Sweden and Russia, for this reason it aspires more to be considered a Nordic state.
Today, Estonian society encourages liberty and liberalism, with a popular commitment to the ideals of the limited government, discouraging centralised power and corruption. The Protestant work ethic remains a significant cultural staple, and free education is a highly prized institution. As the mainstream culture in the Nordic countries, Estonian culture can be seen to build upon the ascetic environmental realities and traditional livelihoods, a heritage of comparatively widespread egalitarianism out of practical reasons see: Everyman's right and universal suffrage , and the ideals of closeness to nature and self-sufficiency see: summer cottage.
The Estonian Academy of Arts Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia , EKA is providing higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation while the University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy has an approach to popularise native culture through such curricula as native construction, native blacksmithing, native textile design, traditional handicraft and traditional music, but also jazz and church music.
In , there were museums in Estonia whose combined collections contain more than 10 million objects. Runic singing was widespread among Estonians until the 18th century, when rhythmic folk songs began to replace them. Traditional wind instruments derived from those used by shepherds were once widespread, and are now becoming more commonly played once more. Other instruments, including the fiddle , zither , concertina , and accordion are used to play polka or other dance music.
The kannel is a native instrument that is again becoming more popular in Estonia. The tradition of Estonian Song Festivals Laulupidu started at the height of the Estonian national awakening in Today, it is one of the largest amateur choral events in the world.
In , about , people participated in the Song Festival. The last festival took place in July In addition, Youth Song Festivals are also held every four or five years, the latest taking place in In the s, Estonian baritone Georg Ots rose to worldwide prominence as an opera singer. In , Estonia hosted the event.
Lenna Kuurmaa gained recognition in Europe performing with her band Vanilla Ninja. Estonian literature refers to literature written in the Estonian language ca. The oldest records of written Estonian date from the 13th century. Originates Livoniae in the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia contains Estonian place names, words and sentence fragments. The Liber Census Daniae contains Estonian place and family names. The cultural stratum of Estonian was originally characterised by a largely lyrical form of folk poetry based on syllabic quantity.
Apart from a few, albeit remarkable, exceptions, this archaic form has not been widely employed in later times. One of the most outstanding achievements in the field is the national epic Kalevipoeg. At a professional level, the traditional folk song reached its new heyday during the last quarter of the 20th century, primarily thanks to the work of composer Veljo Tormis.
Oskar Luts was the most prominent prose writer of early Estonian literature and is still widely read today, particularly his lyrical school novel Kevade Spring. Tammsaare 's social epic and psychological realist pentalogy , Truth and Justice , captured the evolution of Estonian society from a poor farmer community to an independent nation.
The cinema of Estonia started in with the production of a newsreel about Swedish King Gustav V 's visit to Tallinn. Regular, live radio broadcasts began in December Deregulation in the field of electronic media has brought radical changes compared to the beginning of the s. The first licences for private TV broadcasters were issued in The first private radio station went on the air in Estonia and its capital Tallinn have also served as a filming location for international productions, such as a British-American film Tenet , directed by Christopher Nolan.
Estonian media sector is vibrant and competitive sector, with a plethora of weekly newspapers and magazines, and Estonians have a choice of 9 domestic TV channels and a host of radio stations. Estonia has been internationally recognised for its high rate of press freedom, having been ranked 3rd in the Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders.
Estonia has two news agencies. The architectural history of Estonia mainly reflects its contemporary development in northern Europe. In addition, the country has several unique, more or less preserved hill forts dating from pre-Christian times, a large number of still intact medieval castles and churches, while the countryside is still shaped by the presence of a vast number of wooden manor houses from earlier centuries.
As of [update] , there are 12 public holidays which come with a day off and 12 national holidays celebrated annually. Historically, the cuisine of Estonia has been heavily dependent on seasons and simple peasant food. Today, it includes many typical international foods.
The most typical foods in Estonia are black bread, pork, potatoes, and dairy products. Hunting and fishing have also been very common, although currently hunting and fishing are enjoyed mostly as hobbies. Today, it is also very popular to grill outside in summer. Traditionally in winter, jams, preserves, and pickles are brought to the table.
Gathering and preserving fruits, mushrooms, and vegetables for winter has always been popular, but today gathering and preserving is becoming less common because everything can be bought from stores. However, preparing food for winter is still very popular in the countryside.
Estonia first competed as an independent nation at the Summer Olympics. Estonian athletes took part in the Olympic Games under the Soviet flag, as the country had been occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union in The Summer Olympics Sailing regatta was held in the capital city Tallinn. After regaining independence in , Estonia has participated in all Olympics. Estonia has won most of its medals in athletics , weightlifting , wrestling , and cross-country skiing.
Estonia has been one of the most successful nations at the Olympics in terms of medals won per capita. Estonia's best results were being ranked 13th in the total medals' table at the Summer Olympics , and 12th at the Winter Olympics. Kiiking , a relatively new sport, was invented in by Ado Kosk in Estonia. Kiiking involves a modified swing in which the rider of the swing tries to go around degrees. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in Northern Europe.
For the language, see Estonian language. For other uses, see Estonia disambiguation. Eesti Vabariik Estonian. Show globe. Show map of Europe. The Supreme Court and one ministry are based in Tartu. According to the Constitution of Estonia , Estonian is the sole official language.
Main article: Name of Estonia. Main article: History of Estonia. Main article: Estonian national awakening. Main article: Singing Revolution. Main article: Geography of Estonia. Main article: Climate of Estonia. Main articles: Fauna of Estonia and Protected areas of Estonia. Alar Karis President since Kaja Kallas Prime Minister since Main articles: Law of Estonia and Constitution of Estonia.
Main article: Crime in Estonia. Main articles: Foreign relations of Estonia and Diplomatic missions of Estonia. Main article: Economy of Estonia. Main article: Transport in Estonia. Main article: Tallinn Stock Exchange. Main article: Demographics of Estonia.
Residents of Estonia by ethnicity  Estonians. For a more comprehensive list, see List of cities and towns in Estonia. Largest cities or towns in Estonia . Main article: Religion in Estonia. Religion in Estonia   Unaffiliated Eastern Orthodox Lutheran Other Christian 1. Pentecostal and other neoprotestant denominations 0. Other religions 1. Main article: Languages of Estonia. Main article: Education in Estonia.
Main articles: Culture of Estonia and List of Estonians. Main article: Music of Estonia. Main article: Literature of Estonia. See also: Estophile. See also: List of Estonian films and List of Estonian war films. This sction needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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Main article: Estonian cuisine. See also: Kama food , Kalev confectioner , Kohuke , and Verivorst. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Sport in Estonia. Estonia portal Europe portal.
Statistics Estonia. Archived from the original on 24 November Retrieved 9 January Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 12 May Retrieved 5 June International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 21 April Retrieved 9 August United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 15 December Retrieved 26 November Legatum Prosperity Index BBC News. Retrieved 29 November ISBN Laneman, Margot ed. Estonian Archaeology. Tartu University Press. ISSN Retrieved 21 January Estonia: A Ramble Through the Periphery. Fantagraphics Books.
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Retrieved 14 October For this situation there are several reasons, starting from the distant past the close connection of the churches with the Swedish or German ruling classes up to the Soviet-period atheist policy when the chain of religious traditions was broken in most families. In Estonia, religion has never played an important role on the political or ideological battlefield. The institutional religious life was dominated by foreigners until the early 20th century.
The tendencies that prevailed in the late s for closer relations between the state and Lutheran church [ It is usually said that Estonia is a Protestant country; however, the overwhelming majority of Estonians, some 72 percent, are nonreligious. Estonia is the European Union EU country with the greatest percentage of people with no religious belief.
This is in part, the result of Soviet actions and repression of religion. When the Soviet Union annexed Estonia in , church property was confiscated, many theologians were deported to Siberia, most of the leadership of Evangelical Lutheran Church went into exile, and religious instruction was banned. Many churches were destroyed in the German occupation of Estonia, from through , and in World War II — , and religion was actively persecuted in Estonia under Soviet rule until , when some measure of tolerance was introduced.
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Riigi Teataja. Retrieved 20 August Institute of the Estonian Language. Retrieved 12 August Archived from the original on 4 September Ministry of Education and Research. Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 22 August Doha also submitted an unsuccessful application for the Summer Olympics. Recovery plans have been criticized for crowding out the private sector, failing to set clear priorities for growth, failing to restore weak consumer and investor confidence, and undermining long-term stability.
The logo of the GCC consists of two concentric circles. On the upper part of the larger circle, the Bismillah phrase is written in Arabic , which means "In the name of God", and on the lower part the council's full name, in Arabic. The inner-circle contains an embossed hexagonal shape that represents the council's six-member countries.
The inside of the hexagon is filled by a map encompassing the Arabian Peninsula , on which the areas of the member countries are borderless and colored in brown. On the edge of the hexagon are colors representing the flags of the six-member countries.
A common market was launched on 1 January with plans to realize a fully integrated single market. However, implementation lagged behind after the financial crisis. The creation of a customs union began in and was completed and fully operational on 1 January However, some barriers remained in the free movement of goods and services. The interoperability of professional qualifications, insurance certificates and identity documents is also underway.
In , Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia took major steps to ensure the creation of a single currency. Kuwait's finance minister said the four members are pushing ahead with the monetary union but said some "technical points" need to be cleared. He added, "A common market and common central bank would also position the GCC as one entity that would have great influence on the international financial system". The implementation of a single currency and the creation of a central bank is overseen by the Monetary Council.
There is currently a degree to which a nominal GCC single currency already exists. Businesses trade using a basket of GCC currencies, just as before the euro was introduced, the European Currency Unit ECU was long used beforehand as a nominal medium of exchange. The investor group includes in particular a number of sovereign wealth funds.
The GCC launched common economic projects to promote and facilitate integration. The member states have connected their power grids [ when? The GCC also launched major rail projects to connect the peninsula. The railways are expected to fuel intra-regional trade while helping reduce fuel consumption. Saudi Arabian Railways , Etihad Rail , and national governments have poured [ when? Decisions on substantive issues require unanimous approval, while issues on procedural matters require a majority.
Each member state has one vote. The Ministerial Council is composed of the Foreign Ministers of all the member states. It convenes every three months. It primarily formulates policies and makes recommendations to promote cooperation and achieve coordination among the member states when implementing ongoing projects. Its decisions are submitted in the form of recommendations for the approval of the Supreme Council. The Ministerial Council is also responsible for preparations of meetings of the Supreme Council and its agenda.
The voting procedure in the Ministerial Council is the same as in the Supreme Council. The Secretariat is the executive arm of the Gulf Cooperation Council. It takes decisions within its authority and implements decisions approved by the Supreme or Ministerial Council.
The Secretariat also compiles studies relating to cooperation, coordination, and planning for common action. It prepares periodical reports regarding the work done by the GCC as a whole and regarding the implementation of its own decisions. On 15 December , Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia announced the creation of a Monetary Council to introduce a single currency for the union. The board of the council, which set a timetable and action plan for establishing a central bank and choosing a currency regime , met for the first time on 30 March Kuwaiti foreign minister Mohammad Sabah Al-Sabah said on 8 December that a single currency may take up to ten years to establish.
The original target was in Oman and the UAE later announced their withdrawal from the proposed currency. In , major moves were taken to ensure the launch of a single currency. Kuwait's finance minister stated that a currency should be implemented without delay. Negotiations with the UAE and Oman to expand the monetary union were renewed.
The first GCC patent was granted in As of , it employed about 30 patent examiners. Amidst the Bahraini uprising , Saudi Arabia and the UAE sent ground troops to Bahrain in order to protect vital infrastructure such as the airport and highway system. The secretary-general of the GCC strongly endorsed the use of international force in Libya. GCC member states joined coalition efforts to enforce the no-fly zone. They also pledged other support including operating training facilities for Syrian rebels in Saudi Arabia  and allowing the use of their airbases by other countries fighting ISIL.
Some of the GCC countries also send some troops to fight the opposition government in Yemen. This is the standardization organization of the GCC, and Yemen also belongs to this organization. It is headquartered at Doha, Qatar. The Board is formed by member state representatives appointed by their governments. The associate membership of Iraq in certain GCC-related institutions was discontinued after the invasion of Kuwait. Yemen was in negotiations for GCC membership in , and hoped to join by The Council issued directives that all the necessary legal measures be taken so that Yemen would have the same rights and obligations of GCC member states in those institutions.
The union has served as a grouping for sports co-operation and competition. The GCC states have an annual Meeting of the Youth and Sports ministers to boost youth and sports initiatives in the region; in , this gathering was held for the 29th time. The GCC Games, a quadrennial multi-sport event , was established by the union and first held in Some financial economists have interpreted the Saudi—Qatari rift as a tangible political sign of a growing economic rivalry between oil and natural gas producers, which could "have deep and long-lasting consequences" beyond MENA.
Qataris were not allowed to enter or live in these countries unless they have a spouse living there, and they must carry a visa in order to enter these countries. Qatar Airways aircraft were also not allowed to fly over these countries. Saudi Arabia stated that they would turn its land border into a canal, known as the Salwa Canal in The plan was abandoned in The state TV also announced the reopening of Qatar - Saudi land border.
Later that evening, it was announced that Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, and Egypt agreed to restore ties with Qatar and on 4 January it was made official at the Al-Ula summit where the blockading countries along with Qatar signed an official agreement and ended the rift after 3 years and 7 months.
Since the creation of the council in its membership has not expanded, with all members being Arab monarchies. Only the Sinai peninsula of Egypt lies in the Arabian peninsula. Despite the societal, political and historical differences between Iraq and its neighboring Gulf states, in , former Iraqi defence minister, stated that Iraq wanted to join the GCC.
At the December Manama summit, the GCC states called for an end to Iranian interference in their internal affairs. In May , Jordan 's request to join the GCC, which had been first submitted 15 years earlier, was accepted and Morocco was invited to join the union. Although a plan for accession was being looked into, it was noted that there was no timetable for either's accession, and that discussions would continue.
As Jordan and Morocco are the only two Arabic speaking monarchies not currently in the council, the current members see them as strong potential allies. Although Morocco is not near the Persian Gulf, the Moroccan foreign minister Taieb Fassi Fihri notes that "geographical distance is no obstacle to a strong relationship". Yemen was in negotiations for GCC membership, and hoped to join by In May , the Gulf Cooperation Council rejected the formation of a transitional political council in southern Yemen , which called for the separation of Southern Yemen, siding with Yemen President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi in doing so.
However, this is unlikely to affect the agenda of the GCC significantly as it has a more aggressive timetable than GAFTA and is seeking greater integration. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Regional trade bloc in the Middle East. This article has multiple issues.
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December Website www. Sum of component states' populations. Main article: Peninsula Shield Force. Main article: Gulf Organization for Industrial Consulting. Main article: GCC Games. Main article: Qatar diplomatic crisis. This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Capitalisation and punctuation. Please help improve this section if you can. June Learn how and when to remove this template message.
This section needs to be updated. March This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Politics portal Saudi Arabia portal. The balance. Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 13 May Gulf News. Retrieved 23 July Secretariat General of the Gulf Cooperation Council. Retrieved 9 April New York Times. Retrieved 8 July Quits Gulf Monetary Union".
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