Similarly, Muxlim. As the purchasing power of the Muslim consumers. TRAVEL Travel and hospitality is one of the key growth areas in the Halal market, one that is closely related to the surge of interest in the Halal food sector. All travellers eat at many points on their journey; along the road, at the airport, on the plane, at the hotel, while they are shopping and for pleasure and entertainment in the evenings. For the Muslim traveller, there are two key essentials — Halal food and prayer facilities.
This represents a massive spectrum of business opportunities. Compared to mainstream travellers, Muslim travellers go in larger groups, stay away longer, and overall, spend more money than the average traveller. Generally speaking, there are still huge gaps in the market for Halal-friendly travel and hospitality services. Some of the high-end hotels are starting to offer separate spa and recreational facilities for men and women, and removing alcohol from the premises altogether.
Tourist attractions in Australia, the West Midlands Airport in the UK, as well as educational and medical institutions are starting to develop Halal-friendly facilities to attract more Muslim travellers. People travel for many reasons: business, pleasure, family reunions, education, health, and of course, for religious reasons also.
The Hajj and Umrah travel services sector have long been the forerunners in the Muslim travel market, but many are now seeing their scope expanding to offering other packages to destinations of interest all over the world. Not only are hotels asking to be rated, but also medical, educational and other tourist attractions are recognising the importance of serving Muslim travellers.
As with all things related to Halal, there is a strong cross-over potential. Halal-friendly also means family-friendly, as it is not just the Muslims who enjoy an environment that is free from alcohol and the related activities that go along with it. Calls from industry insiders for services such as Islamic micro-finance and venture capital that can start to provide the kinds of services that businesses, both large and small, actually need indicates that a re-evaluation is taking place inside the Islamic financial world.
Islamic finance and Halal are a natural match, as they are the only two large Shariah-based industries in the world. They belong together, and yet, because they developed along totally separate paths, there is a disconnect between them. The recent collapse of so many leading usurybased financial institutions all over the Western world has — and continues to have — a profound effect right across the world. Islamic finance is, currently, scarcely involved in the Halal sector; the Halal industry, for the most part, is not using Islamic finance.
This is an opportunity for Islamic financial institutions to reassess their own foundations and the kinds of services they offer. As the Halal industries expand and mature, more major corporations right across the supply chain will see opportunity, and the opportunities to develop the components of a Halal economy will emerge and coalesce. The supply chain expands from farmto-fork to become farm-to-fork-to-finance.
They are natural allies to each other. In the eyes of industry insiders from both sides, some form of convergence between these two Shariah-based sectors is inevitable, and will open the door to the next chapter of growth for both parties. At the same time, in the political arena, leaders in some countries will see the convergence of Halal products and Islamic financial services as an opportunity for national branding.
According to Rushdi Siddiqui, Global Head of Islamic Finance and OIC Countries at Thomson Reuters, once some of the key stakeholders in the Halal sector use Islamic finance, for example issuing a corporate sukuk for an expansion project, then the Islamic finance world will start to pay attention with fresh eyes. They need to see the possibilities in the Halal sector in ways that they already understand before they will be able to recognise new, and perhaps less obvious, opportunities.
News that some major South American beef concerns are considering Islamic finance for a major expansion of the Halal export capabilities, plus the knowledge that this convergence is being discussed at boardroom and policy-making levels would lead us to believe that the next chapter for both of these industries is just around the corner. This spells opportunity for the inventive entrepreneur. As with everything in life, paying attention and being aware is the first step.
Turning information and knowledge into action is the second step. Keeping focused and staying the course is the third step to success. And while nothing comes without effort, and there are certainly no guarantees, it is clear that the Halal sector is already on its course to becoming a major market force of the 21st century.
It is one of the fastest growing markets in the world, offering vast opportunities and rewards for all. Amid a global recession two years ago, doom and gloom predictions were overshadowing every industry, including the Halal industry. As the year drew to an end, there was reason to believe that the negative impact on the global Halal industry might have been exaggerated. Using the latest available data, calculations for this publication suggest that the value is actually closer to USD billion at prices see Table 1.
Once nonfood products and services are included, the global Halal market value may well exceed USD2 trillion a year. Throw in non-food products and services such as leisure and recreation as well as health goods and medical services, the figure could easily be in excess of USD21 billion a year. What is clear is that the anchor of the global Halal industry is food, and so even in an economic crisis, it is unlikely that the industry would collapse.
After all, food is a basic necessity of life. In difficult times, consumer preferences may shift towards buying more affordable products and raw food, but they will continue to spend on food. Moreover, Halal as a basic tenet of the Islamic faith also makes consumption of Halal products more than a matter of mere budgetary considerations. Robust demand is why the food business has in fact been booming; in February, global food prices reached their highest since the United Nations started tracking them in Information on the Halal industry has not always been readily available.
But if one were to look closely at how the world economy and trade performed in , the numbers would seem to justify the case of an optimistic assessment. The rebound was especially pronounced in emerging economies, led by developing Asia, as well as Middle East and Africa — the two regions that are home to the bulk of the global Muslim population.
After a contraction in , world trade volume was likely to have grown by In all likelihood, the global Halal industry, after weathering the economic crisis in , was lifted by the subsequent rising tide. One sign of the Halal industry going mainstream is the stepping-up of efforts by governments in Asia and the Middle East to pour millions into creating regional Halal hubs not only for the food industry, but also pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, personal care products, tourism, apparels, restaurants and hotels, banking and finance, and logistics.
The burgeoning of Halal hubs, which are essentially geographic in nature, is surprisingly banking on emerging global supply chains that are fast eroding geographical limitations. Seeking to reduce cost and improve efficiency, firms enter into a supply chain and form business alliances that link all players for supply, services and technical support. Facing a relatively higher cost of production at home, more and more Malaysian firms are turning to contract farming, sourcing for raw ingredients from the most competitive foreign suppliers in Thailand, New Zealand and Australia, amongst others.
After further processing and packaging, the final products are shipped to the intended export destinations from Malaysia. Another indicator that the Halal industry is gaining momentum is the plethora of initiatives undertaken by various countries to focus on not just the production and supply of Halal goods and services, but also Halal certification, standards and financing.
Muslim-majority countries without Halal certification procedures and standards are now actively introducing them. Data used for all countries and regions were for the year , with the exception of Brunei , United Arab Emirates , Singapore , Bahrain , Kuwait , and Oman In addition, will also be remembered as the year when the assets of the global Islamic finance industry crossed the USD1 trillion mark, after recording an average annual growth rate of above 20 per cent over the past decade.
Bright Outlook in The outlook for the global Halal industry is indeed bright in To begin with, the global. According to the latest forecast released by the IMF in January, the world economy would expand at a slightly slower yet stable pace of 4. While activity in the advanced economies is projected to expand by a sluggish rate of 2. Developing Asia — i. China, India,. Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam — continues to grow most rapidly, but other emerging regions are also expected to continue their strong rebound.
Having exceeded precrisis levels for the first time in December , world trade volume is also expected to grow by 7. Improved economic environments aside, the continuous rise of the global Halal economy will. More than 60 per cent of the global Muslim population can be found in Asia while about 20 per cent is in the Middle East and North Africa. By , the number of Muslim will soar to 2. And it is not just the total size that matters. By , it is expected that 60 per cent of the population of Muslim-majority coun-.
Harmonisation will happen once a particular standard has won wide acceptance and is adopted by a critical mass; this is something that has yet to happen. For instance, given the growing awareness of health food such as organic and diet food — as well as the willingness of some consumers to pay for health food regardless of price — food companies are launching products that are both healthy and Halal. A rising demand for ethically- and sustainably-produced goods, from round-neck t-shirts to lipsticks, among the more affluent Western consumers has also provided the impetus for Halal suppliers to cater to this niche segment.
A younger and presumably richer generation will translate into demand for increasingly diverse and sophisticated products and services that will help them lead the Islamic lifestyle they desire. Traditionally, with growing wealth and higher disposable income, it has been shown that consumers will spend less on basic necessities such as food as a share of their total expenses and fork out more money for non-food products and services.
Muslims will be no exception to this rule. This augurs well for development of products and services, ranging from fast food and fashion to music and travel. The prospects of the global Halal industry are, however, not limited to the Muslim consumers since many of the Halal products and services can also be consumed by nonMuslims.
The expansion of the global Halal industry in will continue to drive the growth of myriad sectors well beyond food products. As global. Ports, shipping and freight forwarding, and warehousing and handling facilities are becoming the latest lucrative spots in the global Halal industry. Many of these facilities and services are already in operation; hence making them Halal-compliant is relatively easy and this trend is set to gain more traction.
Another sector set to witness strong growth is Islamic banking and finance. The interest in Islamic banking and finance products started years ago but they began to receive even wider public attention after the global economic crisis, due to their generally more conservative approach. The greatest growth opportunities will come from under-penetrated markets with large Muslim populations awaiting better Islamic finance products in the Middle East, Pakistan and South East Asia.
Eager to grab a bigger share in the global Halal industry, firms and governments are seeking to gain access to the existing and potential markets. Managing intensifying competition in a globalised environment requires fundamental understanding of the markets. Such an approach has it strength in that it uses generalised characteristics — primarily Muslim population size and income level — about a grouping of countries for quick identification of markets.
Asia-Pacific, with a Muslim population larger than that of any other region, is often said to be the prime target for Halal businesses. The MENA region is touted to be another promising market due to many reasons: it has the second largest Muslim population after Asia-Pacific and has more Muslim-majority countries and territories than any other region; it lacks agricultural pro-.
For that reason, Europe and North America also hold much promise because Muslims there, too, have higher disposable income because many of the countries in those regions are developed economies. For all its usefulness, the understanding and targeting of Halal markets by region, however, is not without its limitations.
Firstly, within each region, not all countries are the same. Demographics aside, every country is at a different level of economic development and purchasing power than its neighbours. Part of this problem can be overcome by targeting countries with at least a decent income level, namely middle and high income economies as classified by the World Bank. However, cross-country differences are difficult to ignore if one were to consider a fact that is especially relevant to Halal businesses: every national market is essentially governed by different consumer preferences, trade restrictions, import regulations, industry structures, health, safety and even Halal standards, and other rules and procedures — all of which will directly determine how easy or difficult it will be for outsiders to have a crack at the domestic market.
On Halal standards and certification specifically, it is worth noting that while it is true that development of Halal standards will intensify in the next years in a sign that points to the great potential of the Halal market, it is unlikely that the deluge of standards originating from different countries will be harmonised into a single set of international standards that will be acceptable to all anytime soon. It may still happen eventually, but not in the short to medium term.
To ensure a better chance of success in penetrating the Halal market, filling the glaring gap present in market intelligence and evaluation is a must. Halal businesses must understand their target markets by disaggregating and differentiating the destinations for which their products and services are intended. While success stories are heard from time to time, there have been an equal number of examples of mistakes committed by Halal business aspirants. The most common mistake is a mismatch between market selection and product offerings, which can be traced to inadequate evaluation of the actual market potential and risks.
Until recently, the MENA region has been viewed with much optimism and there was not much warning about possible risks associated with some of these markets. Many businesses were in fact caught by surprise when a series of upheavals struck the countries one after another.
Even from a pure economic perspective, the MENA region remains a tough market for new entrants. The Gulf Cooperation Council GCC countries may be importing a lot but one must also consider the hard numbers: in , Almost three decades later, in , the EU and to a lesser extent, the US continued to remain the key exporters to GCC countries, with a share of Halal business is unique for its religious dimension but it cannot escape the same law of gravity in an economic world that is applicable to all businesses.
On that note, Halal businesses, be it existing players or start-ups, must understand that competition and cooperation are defined less by national boundaries and more by global supply chains, thanks to technology. Halal businesses will do well if they can start by ascertaining how they will fit in within a supply chain and dedicate their efforts to integrating themselves into the supply chain and working with others. Only through strong business alliances will Halal businesses form collaborative relationship management, procurement and logistical effectiveness and efficiency along the whole supply chain — the key link that will help them to fully realise the potential of the global Halal industry.
So by that, it means to me that firstly, we have to be as certain as we can; secondly, and more interestingly as it relates to my Ministry, is that Halal opens up more avenues for business and trade — it is a typical blue ocean strategy. That is my definition of Halal. The Malaysian Halal agenda was first mentioned by your father, Tun Dr. Mahathir, in year as an alternative for the global biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry.
It was then pursued by his successor, Tun Abdullah Hj. MM: It may not be a specific agenda, but for Halal, if you look through most if not all of the government agendas, Halal factors in some form or the other. When we talk about industries and bringing in investments or increasing exports, Halal plays a relevant role, and as we are well aware, the global Halal market is growing exponentially.
MM: Waalaikumsalaam. I see Halal as one of the tenets of Islam where we are required to make sure everything we consume are Halal, especially in this day and age, where we now have the ability to ascertain whether there are any components within those products and services that may not be Shariah-compliant or from our standpoint, non-Halal. Today, we have the ability to define more clearly, not just in food but also in other sectors, what is Halal and what is not.
The figure USD3. More interestingly, and somewhat of a phenomenon I suppose, the non-Muslim countries are also the largest consumers of Halal products. So it seems to me something we started many years ago has really caught on, on a global scale.
As such, the agenda from our standpoint has not changed; it has become even deeper and more complex. Today, the food portion of Halal is shrinking, not in terms of value, but because the other parts of Halal have become more prominent, and that is an interesting development and. I think Malaysia is always at the forefront of finding Halal in other sectors. But much of this requires the participation and commitment of local SME producers, who are predominantly non-Muslims, and who are also facing numerous issues and challenges.
MM: It is an interesting development. We see that when we have a certain advantage, certification for example; and then they look at ASEAN with a population of million people, plus our proximity to China and India and our relationship with OIC countries particularly the GCC , they would see Malaysia is a good place to invest in.
For companies from Europe or Japan who want to get onto the Halal bandwagon but may not have the capacity to get local certification, one way of course is to try and get Halal certification from Malaysia, which from our standpoint, does not really benefit us.
So the next best thing for them, and works for us too, is to literally set it up here, joint venture perhaps with a local partner in terms of sourcing of materials, or setting up a whole plant, basically doing pretty much what they do from wherever they come from, but with the extra element of Halal. So they have decided that Malaysia was to be their Halal production hub. What about initiatives to enhance the competitiveness of local Halal SMEs and open up access to penetrate the global Halal markets?
MM: Yes, I think this is extremely important as Malaysia has been in the forefront of making standards. We do a lot of research, training, and so on, but translating that into industry, into products; I think it is a well known fact there are many other countries that excel in that far better than we do. This is not something that we can help, because perhaps these other countries have so long been in the business of producing food.
When we create a new market, it is easier for these established players to translate into Halal, rather than in our case, we have to literally start from scratch. I believe we have been successful in creating awareness. We also help SMEs to understand that the market demand for Halal is important and that it opens up a specific market potential.
Since we are now very serious about penetrating the GCC market, this presents an opportunity for them to supply products to that very discerning and lucrative market. On developing our local industries into Halal industries; we help them in terms of packaging and branding as well as the criteria needed to comply with the export market.
We also do a lot of business match-making, which usually benefits them directly. Its one thing to bring our products overseas and promote them there, but it is even more effective if buyers from all over the world are all here to see the kinds of products we are offering and take it from there. How about ensuring that the producers, both Muslims and non-Muslims, thoroughly understand the intrinsic meanings of Halal?
MM: I think it is much easier to create awareness and to make them see that there is a ready market for a product that meets the demand for Halal market. So from that standpoint, they see there is demand, and people are willing to pay good money, in fact there is potential of exports to Muslim and non-Muslim countries, and at a premium. The way I see it, a product which bears. So the next best thing for them companies from Europe or Japan , and works for us too, is to literally set it up here, joint venture perhaps with a local partner in terms of sourcing of materials, or setting up a whole plant, basically doing pretty much what they do from wherever they come from, but with the extra element of Halal.
Two that I find interesting is hospitality and tourism, and I think we could probably find a niche for Halal-related tourism. The end customer also wants to know if the whole logistics chain is also maintaining the Halal integrity of the product. If prior to this, Halal food may have travelled in freezers, together with non-Halal foods, then there is still that issue whether or not the product is still Halal.
I think the Malaysian logistics companies are handling that matter very well. We now have end-to-end Halal logistics services. For Muslim producers, of course, we have that added incentive, in the akhirat hereafter ; basically, it is non-tangible, not monetary of course, but a lot bigger than that.
So, I think the Halal business is one of the very few businesses whereby someone can actually make a profit, but also earn some pahala reward , for the Afterlife. In terms of budget, how much has the federal government allocated for the development of the Halal sector in Malaysia as a whole and under MITI specifically? What are the projects that we can expect to be rolled out within the foreseeable future for the Malaysian Halal sector?
We see that agencies within MITI have to collaborate and make use some of their allocations for similar purpose, so that way we get to share the burden and the responsibility, to help HDC meet its KPIs key performance indicators. I think that way we get a better bang for each buck that we spend. Projects that we have in progress… as you well know, we are involved in the World Halal Research Summit.
It is in the fourth year now and it has been very successful. It is a two-day event and it is being held in conjunction with the Malaysia Halal Week. This event is interesting because it is specifically focused on research. We also have trade missions that are specific to Halal.
One is to Pakistan, and another to Guangzhou in China, focusing specifically on Halal products and services. You might ask why Guangzhou, because China also has quite a sizeable Muslim population, perhaps not specifically in Guangzhou, but in Ningxia and Xinjiang, two provinces that has a majority or a high percentage of Muslims. We chose Guangzhou because they have been producing their own Halal products, and their own demand for Halal products from the world and from Malaysia is also very high.
We have a Data Warehousing project, to collate the latest data and statistics of the Halal industry. I think it is important and timely that we have this Data Warehousing project. We also have outreach programmes to enhance the knowledge and awareness on Halal. The placement of iKiosk in strategic places where people can get information about what product is Halal, and so on.
Response from these small outreach programmes has been very good. Halal hospitality and Halal logistics were the two identified. Could you elaborate on these please? MM: Two that I find interesting is hospitality and tourism, and I think we could probably find a niche for Halal-related tourism. For now, already tourists from Muslim countries travel to Malaysia because they feel comfortable, because there are no issues on food and the likes, but I think we could go even further than that.
They could experience Malaysia from all things that are Halal. From a tourism aspect, there are many things that can be developed further to enhance this market and the attractiveness of Malaysia as a Halal tourism destination. When we go with a Halal park, the ecosystem is an environment conducive towards the production of Halal products, and services for that matter — everything from water, the materials that come in, how they are handled, and so on.
If livestock is involved, you want to make sure that that too is managed to be Shariah-compliant. The up-and-coming services sector is logistics. I think there are a number that have become quite aware that it is not enough to just produce products that are Halal. At the government level, we want to promote this. But when we talk about it and explain to them, they start thinking that this is something we need, and then the best thing is the fact that people are willing to pay premium for that service.
From that standpoint, the government still want to create awareness. As you can imagine, Abu Dhabi is the heart of the GCC, and they are looking at what Malaysia has in terms of services, most particularly in the Halal sector and I think that too is a great avenue to promote our capabilities.
On the setting up of numerous Halal parks, how viable is the general plan and how do you envision to attract investors to set up businesses in these Halal parks, and in which sectors, what is the targeted investment amount and what sort of incentives can they expect? MM: Before we had the Multimedia Super Corridor MSC , there were Acts passed in the Parliament that provide for bills of guarantee, that give incentives for companies involved in ICT, to find a place they could do business rather cheaply and get all the resources they need to succeed in that particular sector.
We are doing the same for Halal. When we talk about Halal parks, it is the whole ecosystem that is involved. Sometimes, we have a company that produces bread, and within the. So it is not conducive, because when we talk about Halal, it is also about hygiene and cleanliness. From that standpoint, once you have a certain area gazetted for a Halal park, we hope to have more investors come in and make use of that.
At this moment, I must admit that the various different areas of Halal parks sometimes have their own way of approaching this. There are certain standards, but there are also certain innovations and differences in each of them.
From our point of view, so long as they meet a certain minimum standard, which are already very high, they would qualify to be termed as a Halal park. As at the end of , there are eight Halal parks altogether in various locations throughout the country, which are already in operations. Sectors that we are targeting to enhance economic contribution from Halal industries with export-led growth and increasing self sufficiency, are the premium or specialty Halal processed food industry; not just the basic stuff but products that fetch a premium.
Also Halal ingredients, as some of our neighbouring countries are producing Halal food, but they are in dire need for Halal ingredients. So perhaps this is something we could look into as mass production. I see that as a lucrative business actually. Other sectors include cosmetics, personal care products and pharmaceuticals, which are growing very rapidly but has a lot more room to grow; and also in livestock.
So these are the areas that. In order for this to happen, the government will, of course, look into incentives to attract these companies to invest, not just in the specific locations but also specific sectors that I mentioned earlier.
It has been working and people are becoming a lot more interested. One of the oft-cited issues is the lack of a concerted effort between the federal and state governments to assist in preparing local SME producers to be Halal-certified. Since a number of producers are still operating in their own backyard, does MITI have plans to relocate and upgrade these cottage producers?
Whilst we create awareness and help these SMEs and cottage industries to focus on Halal, we of course have to make them understand that in most cases, the location of their production plays a critical role, whether their product can be deemed as per cent Halal or not. We try to encourage that these producers move into the designated Halal areas, that is one thing. I think is an ongoing effort in each agency under MITI, it is a concerted effort with the state governments, and we gather all our capacities and capabilities to create more business opportunities and basically attract these SMEs to comply with those requirements.
It grows very substantially every year. Most importantly is the fact that we organise business matching sessions. This is when they get to meet the buyers and cut deals. I think more of that needs to be done. HDC is also working with JAKIM to increase Halal awareness, through various outreach programmes, and this include visits to selected potential Halal SMEs to provide them with advisory services, in addition to our ongoing Halal-related seminars, trainings and consultancies. What are your vision and aspirations for the local SME sector within the Halal sector?
How do you foresee the burgeoning global Halal industry help improve their current standings and that of Malaysia? When a market seems saturated, the next best thing to do is to create a new market. The Halal industry is exactly that. We may be a bit behind as compared with other producers, but when we started the Halal industry, of course we started very small, but now it has really grown to become an industry that is attracting a lot of players including those who never even considered it, because they thought there was never any need.
One example is vaccines. For such a long time we know that proteins used in the manufacturing of vaccines are non-Halal, and the conventional thinking was, since there is no alternative, even the religion allows it. So that has been the fatwa. But what if we were to create an alternative? Then it is beholden on us, to use the Halal alternative instead of the non-Halal one. Suddenly, the pharmaceutical industry realise that this is a captured market.
It is almost by decree, by Divine tenet, that if you have a Halal version, you have no choice but to use that. I think this is the best thing that has ever happened to SMEs! We are now seeing SMEs exporting to GCC, when prior to this they would have no chance of doing so because they would have to compete with the Europeans and the rest.
Because of the Malaysian Halal logo, they are now seen at par with the best of them. So I think our approach and our focus right now is to get more SMEs to be involved in this industry, and we will help them to the best of our abilities.
It is clear that this market is growing and maturing. There are some key questions for marketers in formulating an effective American Muslim marketing strategy. Almost half of the American Muslims are indigenous and the recent immigrant populations are already into their second or third generations.
As a result, many consumer behaviour aspects are reflective of the general American consumption patterns. From buying cell phones to drinking soft drinks, the American part of their identity prevails. However, a variety of Muslim market-specific product categories and levels of customisation opportunities do exist.
In August, the natural grocery giant Whole Foods began selling its first nationally distributed Halal food product — frozen Indian entrees called Saffron Road. In the late nineties, much was written about the Hispanic market in the US, but it was lost in the mainstream media without any action until early At this time, the ethnic market started to reach a sizable opportunity for companies to target, and today this market stands at USD1.
Broadly, this consumer landscape can be broken down into two categories. First, the consumer products and services that a Muslim household spends on regardless, that are not unique for Muslim consumers alone; and second, the products and services specific to the unique Muslim consumer needs. The first category is where marketing focus is needed on custom communication, targeted media reach and building loyalty.
The second is where customised Muslim products, services or dedicated business lines are developed. In recent years we have seen a mainstream company like Best Buy Inc. In August, the natural grocery giant, Whole Foods, began selling its first nationally distributed Halal food product — frozen Indian entrees called Saffron Road.
American Muslim entrepreneurs have also launched many companies targeting the local Muslim consumers. The American Muslim market today has a fast growing diverse set of media and forums that enable access to it. From fast growing online networks such as Zabihah. Muslims comprise one of the fastest growing consumer markets in the world and, hence, represent a major growth opportunity for businesses around the world.
Kearney A global management consulting firm. Ogilvy Noor estimated that there are as many as 8 million Muslims in the U. They are also well educated - From food to fashion to finance, buying Muslim is a big opportunity and consumer brands in the U. The American Muslim Consumer Conference AMCC provides the only platform for industry professionals to examine this potent market sector, and explore its rich potential. More info: americanmuslimconsumer. The increased support and buzz around this emerging consumer segment is good for the Muslim community, brands seeking to court them and the US economy.
And as the outlook for significant top-line growth and overall economic recovery still looks gloomy in many sectors, look for more brands, mainstream and Muslim-owned, and to begin and make efforts to gain the attention and loyalty of a significantly important and underserved demographic in the marketplace — the American Muslim consumer.
Halal sausages first appeared in shops near the mosques in the 90s. Ethnic Muslims in Russia only knew about the word Halal 30 years ago, and for most it meant simply just meat permitted by Islam. Most supermarkets in Russia today have special sections where you can find Halal products. Russia is becoming an active importer and exporter of Halal goods and services.
Russian consumers are attracted to Halal products for reasons similar to others around the world: quality and safety. Halal products are in great demand among the buyers of different religions — everyone who cares about health. In Russia, Halal has become not only a preference, but a way of life for many Russian Muslims. More than sixty companies from Russia, Belarus, Palestine, UAE and Indonesia presented their range of foods, cosmetics and perfumes, clothes and books,.
A wide range of services was presented by travel operators and financial institutions. Thousands of residents and guests, businessmen and consumers visited the exhibition. During the three-day exhibition period, a significant number of agreements were signed on trade development, and on the supply of goods to new markets.
Throughout the exhibition, a range of issues were discussed, including the development of a single global standard for Halal production, training of professional personnel for the Halal industry and so on. The main outcome of the first exhibition is the common opinion of specialists and. It is a centralized religious organization uniting on a voluntary basis religious Muslim associations — Religious boards of Muslims, Muhtasibats and other kinds of religious Muslim associations within the territory of the Russian Federation.
The Council carries out its activity on the basis of the Holy Writ of Muslims, the Koran, and the Muslim law, the Sharia, in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the legislations of the Russian Federation, Federal Law and the Charter on freedom of conscience and religious associations.
Halal gmail. An excellent discount system offered by the organizers which depended on the period of payment and the booth size allows the exhibitors and participants to optimize their experiences. In , the Exhibition will extend its timeframes and will last for 4 days including two weekend days — a unique opportunity for exhibiting companies to present their products and services to even larger number of prospective customers.
The Organizing committee of the Exhibition invites companies representing halal-industry and having experience in running sharia-compliant businesses, to participate at Moscow Halal Expo Repeat exhibitors and those who make payment before December 31, , may expect a smart system of discounts. Russia is the biggest country in the world with total area 6,, sq. The enormous size of the country and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the continental climate, which is prevalent in European and Asian Russia except for the tundra and the extreme southeast.
Due to its sheer size, Russia is also a country with the longest transportation route in the world. The total length for commonlyused railway tracks exceeds 53, miles, and over , miles of paved roads. Russia was, in fact, bigger just a few decades ago. The USSR comprised of 15 communist republics which existed from until its dissolution in After the dissolution of USSR, a new state based on the capitalist market economy was created.
It also changed from adopting a communist system to a federal-semi-presidential republic where human rights form the basic underlying value. Demographics The Russian Federation comprises of 83 federal subjects. They are grouped into eight federal districts, each administered by an envoy appointed by the President of Russia. The country has about ethnic groups, who speak some languages. The second largest group after Russians is Tatar numbering some 5.
Russian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in the country, with approximately million Russians considering themselves as Russian Orthodox Christians. The last population census in puts the Muslim population in Russia to approximately million people. There is a large Muslim presence in the Volga-Ural region and most of the population in North Caucasus of Russian Federation is Muslims, with a large number of Tatar Muslims living in Siberia and other. Figure 1 shows the distribution of Muslim population in Russia.
The national population census also shows a general decrease in the total number of Russians. On the flip side however, it also shows an increase in the number of Muslims in Russia. Transportation Due to its sheer size, Russia is also a country with the longest transportation route in the world. The total length for commonly-used railway tracks exceeds 53, miles, and over , miles of paved roads. The rapid development of transportation industry, including railroads, automobile and marine infrastructures as well as warehousing, has also resulted in an increased in development for local logistics industry.
Figures 2, 3 and 4 respectively show the dynamics of logistics development in Russia with predictions up to Benefits from developing Halal Logistics In addition to improving the integration between producers of Halal products with the general Muslim society in Russia, the development of Halal logistics will also: allow for increase in the level of production and consumption of Halal in Russia; provide truthful information about the state of various Muslim communities in Russia; help create a consolidated Zakat treasury in Russia, which will be distributed to every local Muslims who qualify; spread the implementation of Halal standards to all sectors of business in Russia; and unite the local Muslim ummah.
Figure 1: Muslim population in Russia Halal market development in Russia The development of Halal logistics in Russia would depend largely from the growth of the local Halal market, and the growth of the local Halal market has a direct correlation to the number of practicing Muslims in Russia, as only practicing believers would actively seek Halal food or products.
Note also the increasing number of practicing Muslims in Russia within the past 15 years. There is a large Muslim presence in the Volga-Ural region and most of the population in North Caucasus of Russian Federation is Muslims, with a large number of Tatar Muslims living in Siberia and other regions. This increasing trend is causing a demand boom for Halal food and consumer products.
Many companies have also begun producing products targeted for the Halal market segment, with many have increased their production rate to meet with the increasing consumer demand for Halal. Another interesting development is the fact that this demand is not merely coming from the Muslims themselves.
This was probably. Prospects of Halal Logistics development in Russia Another important point that can be derived from fig. It is also noted that, in practically every Russian city, there exist at least one mosque surrounded by a Muslim community. Four main issues can therefore be summed up from this, including the fact that:. In , the Linova-Trade company launched a new Halal-hub in Kazan. The area is approximately 4, sq ft, with an extendable area of up to 10, sq ft. The hub is situated in the middle of Russia, with a distinct possibility that the high cost to transport end products is reflected in the final price to consumers.
Another possible alternative for a Halal hub in Russia could be near the seaport of Novorossiysk or the seaport of Saint-Petersburg. However, these ports are located in non-Muslim majority states, what makes the function and control of end-to-end Halal production and shipment even more complicated. However, Halal terminals can. The United Information Logistics Centre will perform the following tasks schematically as shown in fig.
Halal standards Unfortunately, there is no one recognized standard for the Russian Halal market. Non-Muslim companies currently are allowed to produce Halal products, but to increase production capacity, the slaughter of non Halal animals are often done within the same premise. As a result, non Halal meat such as pork was often discovered in many Halal products produced by non-Muslims companies in Russia, adding to further distrust of Muslims to non Muslim producers.
The main rationale for this labeling is so that the majority of consumers, Muslims or otherwise, can make an informed choice about the company which produces the said product. In addition, consumers are able to identify the companies that produce Halal products entirely or those that does both Halal and non Halal products within the same production facility.
Statistically, the total Muslim population in India had increased by Indian Muslims command a 15 per cent share in total consumer market according to their population but keeping the constraint of their economic situation, it is assumed that they command only a 10 per cent share within the overall market. According to a report by the Indian government, population growth in India is likely to continue for some time but will eventually cease and possibly decline for all communities, including Muslims, as the ongoing process of demographic transition progresses further.
Most of the Muslim households in India are within the middle level expenditure background. Comparative to the rural areas, Indian Muslims living in urban areas have better economic conditions but the mass population still lives in rural areas. Wealth Distribution Muslims population resides in all states and districts of India.
To market Halal products in India, identification of Muslim populated states and districts is essential. In , of the million Muslims in India, 31 million, or 22 per cent, lived in one single state, i. Uttar Pradesh. The majority of the Muslim populations in India are in these four states. In micro level planning of any product, districts have the pivotal role in administrative division of India.
The majority of Indian Muslims 64 per cent lives in rural areas due to preference to agriculture as their main source of income while only 34 per cent of the population prefers to live in urban areas. Despite this however, the urbanization trend among Muslims remains relatively high in comparison to other communities. Comparison of annual per capita expenditure for Indian Muslims living in urban vs rural areas Year Ratio between male and female is quite even among Indian Muslims with Share of youths and children are also relatively higher among Muslims, but literacy rate is lower in comparison to overall population, with only four per cent graduated college while approximately 40 per cent are illiterate as per the census report.
In terms of work preference, most Indian Muslim workers are self employed in agriculture and trade-related occupations and very few opt for the services sector. Percentage of regular salaried worker among Muslims is also less in comparison to other communities. Traditional cottage and handicraft industries like the brass industry in Moradabad, or the bangle-making industry in Ferozabad and carpet industry in Badohi are mostly owned by Indian Muslims.
Economic Prosperity India has achieved a higher economic growth in recent years and it achieved a nine per cent growth rate for the financial year Consistent increase in per capita income has resulted in a growing middle income segment of the population and holds a higher purchasing power. After the liberalization of the Indian economy in , per capita income has been increased from Rs. A larger middle income group ultimately widens the consumer market in India.
It has now becomes a lucrative market for investors in the business of durable goods, processed foods and beverages, real estates, financing, textile and travel. Competition between the companies has given greater choices to consumers among for fresh new styles of products and services. Despite this however, the Indian Muslim population remains relatively untapped due to their preference to use only Halal certified products.
This should appeal to potential investors as India is home to more than 10 per cent of the global Muslim population, the third largest Muslim community after Indonesia and Pakistan. There are more than million Muslims in India having approximately 15 per cent of total population. Twenty districts have more than 50 per cent Muslim population while 68 districts having more than 25 per cent share in total population.
Halal Meat Hub In addition to the domestic market, India is also thriving hub for the export of meat and processed products to other Muslim countries. Larger share of younger Muslim population indicate the potential of modern Halal foodstuffs and other related segments. It is worth noting that the introduction of a Halal logo to conventional products may not work for most Indian Muslims, as it may be perceived as a weak attempt to entice them after being left out due to their religious limitations.
Immense potential exists for Halal products within the processed food segments, as well as drinks and beverages and other consumer products where there exist high levels of ambiguity within the method of manufacturing and mixing of Haram not Halal ingredients. The absence of clarity about Haram or Halal prevents the Muslim consumers to use the processed products. A significant number of Indian Muslim consumers would also be inclined by the adoption and use of Halal methods and materials within the manufacturing of processed products, in addition to a proper labeling of Halal certification details on their products.
In fact, the Muslim market is very unique in the sense that it is very fragmented, and the only way to address it as one segment is through digital channels. How can Social Media help strengthen the network of Halal-certified manufacturers and service providers across the globe? Do we need to create a new platform specific to the needs of Muslim consumers worldwide or should we just integrate that new requirement with existing apps such as Facebook, Twitter or Foursquare?
Regardless of where or how Muslim companies and consumers interact, the fact is, this interaction is bound to happen sooner or later and the companies who do it sooner have a better chance of building loyalty and good will among consumers. Before you started Muxlim, what were your initial and current impressions of using social media for businesses? Has it seen much progression today as it was five years ago? This concept of the mind is something new, complex and loose.
To make discussion brief, it can include all dynamic processes in commonly understood terminology like alam fikiran the realm of thought , hati literally liver , rasa taste , akal budi thought or common sense to define the Malay mind. In traditional Malay society which stressed on the importance of collective feelings, attitudes and views, the discussion on the collective mind become more relevant to us.
In the context of this research, the concept of mind will be derived from this understanding, which tends to combine the element of thinking and the element of emotion. Proverbs24 There are positive and negative attitudes in seeing how proverbs can be defined. Hence no definition will enable us to identify positively a sentence as proverbial. Milner ; Barley ; Dundes , to try to go for a structural linguistic approach. This means that proverbs must have at least two words. Peribahasa was regarded as the same as pepatah or bidal by Husny According to him, pepatah, peribahasa or bidal carries the meaning of: Kesimpulan sesuatu jang dinjatakan dengan padat dan singkat, jang kadang2 merupakan sebuah pantun, kadang2 hanja merupakan dua baris kalimat dan malahan ada pula jang hanja dilukiskan dalam satu kalimat pendek sadja p.
A conclusion which is compactly and pithily stated, sometimes in the form of a pantun quatrain , sometimes consisting only of two sentences and some even being drawn in only a very short sentence. Simpulan bahasa is even shorter. Perkataan-perkataan pinjaman jarang-jarang menerbitkan simpulan bahasa, iaitu hanya mana yang sudah mesra jadi seperti perkataan Melayu betul sahaja p. Borrowed words seldom produce simpulan bahasa, only those which have become intimate just like the true Malay words.
In the Malay context, even though there are very few, a single statement or sentence can sometimes be contracted into a single word. There is also another proverb which is presented only in a single word, terijuk, which means frustrated or feels ashamed. Terijuk is regarded as a proverb with Minangkabau origin and is cited in Peribahasa Pamuntjak, Iskandar and Madjoindo , , later will be cited as PB only and Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia , , the most authoritative dictionary of the Indonesian language.
Another single-word proverb as collected in MBRAS 49 is lembap, which means moist, but not very wet. By metaphor, the word is used for idleness in a worker. In this context of research, my definition and scope of peribahasa are used as a generic term in a broader perspective to include bidalan, pepatah, perumpamaan, perbilangan, simpulan bahasa and other forms of proverbial sayings. Early research has tended to be historical in emphasis, which tried to locate the possible places and times of origin of individual proverbs See several articles of Archer Taylor and Wolfgang Mieder According to Taylor c : The study of proverbs deals with: the bibliography of proverbs and proverb collections; the assemblage of new materials and the availability of old sources; the origin, history, influence, reliability, and the value of collections; the history of individual proverbs with the interpretation and the evaluation of their changing forms; the rise and use of proverbial types and formulae including proverbial phrases; Wellerisms; proverbial comparisons; the translation of proverbs from one language into another; literary conventions in the use of proverbs; etc.
Such interests as in the origin, history, collection, translation, etc. Nonetheless, in the second half of the twentieth century, there was a shift away from purely literary and historical studies of proverbs, as a result of the influence of the social sciences. One of the problems which had plagued paremiologists is that of definition. Shirley L. While Dundes believes that proverbs may best be defined in structural terms as purely functional definitions are inadequate considering that other genres of folklore may share the same function s as proverbs.
Another attempt to understand proverb definition was by Mieder b. Based on his judgement, Mieder argues that there obviously exists a considerable difference between scholarly definition attempts and the common view of the proverbs held by the folk. To Mieder, it was rather surprising that such nouns as meaning, message, comment, occurrence, paradigm, form rhyme, alliteration, etc. The problem of contradictory proverbs is one of the important concerns among paremiologists.
Many scholars have dealt with this supposed contradiction of proverbs from philosophical, linguistic and logical points of view especially formal deductive logic. Indeed, it was as early as in the seventeenth century when Nicholas Breton drew attention to or alluded to the issue of conflicting proverbs, or proverbs advocating opposing philosophies.
Yankah31 , said that among those works from various traditions that discussed about it were Firth , from Maori proverbs , Andrzejewski , from Somali proverbs , Jabo proverbs from the work of Herzog , English proverbs Taylor , proverbs in Chinese Lister and Yoruba proverbs Lindfors and Owomoyela According to Yankah, when one deals with proverbs only as a concept of a cultural fact or truism, contradictions are easily found in any proverb tradition.
Yankah is right that proverbs should be treated in their proper social context. Furthermore, they should be treated in the proper perspective. The particular proverb is in itself contradictory: it is good for the bird to be early but not for the worm, as in this case the bird will be the winner but the worm will be the loser. Therefore, is it good to be early? Perhaps this might only be a sophistic trick.
The proverb is a lexical element in the sense that it is a syntactic string which is learned and reused as a single unit with a frozen internal and external structure. The study of practical reasoning in proverbs was first conducted by Goodwin and Wenzel , first published The reason why Goodwin and Wenzel did not try to differentiate between rhetoric and informal logic might have been due to the fact that the informal logic movement only emerged some time after this article was published.
Wenzel was later prompted to think of proverbs again as potential sources of insight into the logics of different communities by analysing the African proverbs. Besides capturing the interest of paremiologists, current research also show some forms of empirical tendencies through the involvement of psychologists and cognitive scientists.
Psychologists and psychiatrists have long been interested in proverbs for testing intelligence, attitudes, aptitudes, and various mental illnesses. Other proverb tests apparently serve as diagnostic tools in the identification of possible schizophrenics. Donald R. Gorham 35, for instance, has developed a tool for diagnosing schizophrenia, since this illness has been known to result in difficulty in understanding metaphors of proverbs. This test is now best known as the Gorham Proverbs Test.
Works by Honeck, for example, represent the interest in that direction See Honeck and Hoffman , Honeck et al. Let us now concentrate on the Malay proverb scholarship and collections to see how Malay proverbs were being treated and if such treatment were adequate. Even though there are more than million Malay speakers today, their proverbs have not really attracted international attention. The current research on Malay paremiology can be said to have declined today to an alarming state.
Among Malay folklore, the study of Malay proverbs today is only peripheral to other literary studies. This is very unfortunate indeed. The use of such aphorisms in everyday discourse has been generally declining. A survey of Malay writing over the past half century reveals a similar trend. The publications of numerous collections of such sayings in the recent past particularly in the fifties does not belie this trend; it rather confirms it, and serves as another example of the undermining of the old medium by the new: there is a certain irony in the fact that these sayings, mnemonically patterned for easy retrieval in an oral society where they function as repositories of knowledge, are made available as itemized, alphabetically arranged!
Having been removed from the arena of everyday life, they have then been consigned to the fate of a lingering death in the schoolroom, where generations of schoolchildren are subjected to studying them as texts which will have little practical use Sweeney , ;! In this compendium, no literary Malay proverb studies were included. Even his most authoritative three-volume International Proverb Scholarship: An Annotated Bibliography , and a , which contains more than 4, entries of interpretative scholarship not including proverb collections listed only limited titles37 on Malay proverb scholarship.
His comprehensive bibliographies did not cite any work on Malay proverbs. This leads one to conclude that either no serious work on Malay proverbs is currently published or Malay proverbs have never been put onto the international map of paremiology. Discussion on Malay proverbs in Proverbium can only be found, e. Paczolay cited three Malay proverb collections in his comparison, i. Hamilton , Atan and Izhab ?
Teeuw , provided a small section of review on Malay proverbs, but he only touched on collections of Malay proverbs without any review on Malay interpretative proverb scholarship. My discussion will be divided into three sub-sections: a The bibliographies, sources, history and collection of Malay proverbs; b Malay proverbs studies and analyses; and c The application of Malay proverbs in writing. It has always played an important role in attracting the majority of researchers until its other member in the family, peribahasa proverbs can be said to be so pushed into the research periphery or has become a so-called stepbrother in this literary family.
When researchers were intending to look into the thinking of the Malays, they were most attracted to the pantun42 and it seems that they were exalting the pantun as representing the Malay mind. This was so until the eighteenth century. II: in According to Maxwell, the first published collections of Malay proverbs that he knew of was a collection of Malay proverbs, with a preface and notes in the Dutch language, as early as by M. Klinkert, a Dutch gentleman.
This was mentioned in the preface of the Malay and French dictionary of Abbe Favre, which was published in wherein he acknowledged his obligations to M. However, Maxwell had only seen a copy of M. For many proverbs, M.
Klinkert acknowledged his indebtedness to the late Mr. After his first part of Malay proverbs were published, part two in Vol. The most influential peribahasa collection was done by W. Shellabear bearing the title Kitab Kiliran Budi in The first work by a local on the collection of peribahasa was by Mohd. Ariffin — a Malay himself — which appeared in and was first published in Kelantan47 by Pejabat al-Matbaah al Asasiyah as Tikaman Bahasa.
This collection was later republished by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka in There were also collections with English comments by Hamilton , first published , Winstedt , earlier edition and Brown , first published Numerous publications appeared after the Second World War. Several titles can be mentioned: Peribahasa dalam Penggunaan Mohd. Tajuddin Hj. Each volume contains 25 peribahasa perumpamaan, pepatah and simpulan bahasa. There are also proverb collections with illustrations e. The latest interesting proverb collection was compiled, translated and illustrated by Kit Lee For an analysis of Javanese proverbs from the aspects of structure, style, meaning and message, reference can be made to Adi Triyono et al.
The list of Malay-Indonesian proverbs can go on without end, but most of these collections do not show very much differences, which are only either compiled alphabetically or thematically. Malay Proverbs Studies and Analyses The Malay proverb not only plays its role in the scholarly environment or among the writers in the literary circle, but it belongs to the general public — especially during the early times. As part of the verbal arts, peribahasa has become part and parcel of their everyday life.
The observation of Swettenham, however, showed a drastic decline in the Malay conversation, especially in the modern era, at the end of the twentieth century Cf. Sweeney , Sweeney , asserted that the decline in the use of the traditional formulaic expressions began after the introduction of mass education. Taking M. This is done by deliberately creating formulas, in the form of slogans, mottoes, and catchphrases for adoption by the masses Sweeney , Pemuda harapan bangsa, pemudi tiang negara, kebersihan pangkal kesehatan as Sweeney p.
Many Malay proverbs studies however seem to be rather local-based. The interpretative studies on Malay proverbs in the Malaysian context for instance are mostly published in Dewan Bahasa. Since Dewan Bahasa is a journal on Malay language, it is thus understandable why most of the studies on Malay proverbs had been published in this journal see e.
Edward Djamaris , Indirawati Hj. Graduation exercises in the local universities are another source of interpretative studies on Malay proverbs. So far, based on my literature review, a few themes that attracted the most attention are, for example, philosophy and thinking of the Malay Ahmad Ibrahim , Noor Fazidah Mohd. Zahid Even though two graduation exercises can be cited which are supposed to explore the philosophy in the Malay proverbs and helpful in my research area, when we scrutinise them thoroughly and look at their selected references, I am generally quite doubtful that they have a full knowledge of what paremiology is.
Taylor, Dundes, Mieder and many more were being ignored totally. The development of research among the Malay paremiologists is much more education centred in nature — or perhaps literary. The Malay linguists, or Malay proverb scholars, so far gave more attention only to the pragmatic problems in teaching the language generally and the learning of proverbs while none I noticed were seriously involved in the development of theoretical-based studies on Malay paremiology.
Falling into this category, there are, for example, numerous articles in the form of journalistic writing, which touched on various themes pertaining to peribahasa, its meaning and uses See Nik Safiah Karim , a, b and There are quite a number of modern simpulan bahasa i.
Peribahasa should also be reformed in order to make it suitable for modern consumption. There are also some brief comparative works between Malay proverbs and proverbs from other traditions, i. Chinese58 and Philippine See Sahlan Mohd. Saman . Minangkabau, Java in the Malay world. One of the Malay proverbial icons when it comes to writing in Malay should be Abdul Samad Idris — or normally appearing as A.
Samad Idris — to whom I will give my due credit here. His writings, which mostly appeared in Utusan Malaysia and Mingguan Malaysia,60 two of the mainstream newspapers were quite interesting. As a veteran politician from the current leading party, United Malay National Organisation UMNO , he had on and off raised his ideas and comments on the contemporary issues in Malaysian politics. His skills in citing Malay proverbs in his political argumentative discourse should be encouraged. On 17th January , I was able to access another article by him See He is also the compiler of one of the collection of Malay proverbs, Buat Baik Berpada-pada Samad Idris dengan Pepatah Method of Study This research is a first scientific and theoretical attempt of using analytical-philosophical perspectives at judging the Malay mind through the repertoire of Malay proverbs.
It is analytical in one aspect as thousands of proverbs were scrutinised and analysed, but it is also philosophical from another aspect as I will be deriving my conclusion through argumentation. It should be noted that all proverbs will be interpretively analysed with the purpose of tracing: 1 What kinds of logical principles are embedded behind all those proverbs, and to match them to a conventional classification of patterns of reasoning or argument; and 2 How emotional and intuitive patterns go into hiding behind those proverbs.
The conception of logic in peribahasa as something in accord with reality was also touched on by Abdullah Jusoh His idea of the meaning of logic is clear. In reality, rain falls down from the sky and not vice-versa. Therefore, the use of a classificatory system is a matter of interpretation; the categories themselves may be construed in different ways, and many arguments and proverbs may be assigned to more than one category.
It should be noted philosophically as well that this study attempts to approach the Malay mind as a universal category or the concept of human as a Platonic idea and not Ahmad, Ali etc. As such, the contextual issue for the individual proverb use by particular individual does not become a matter of importance to me. It is also impossible to treat every single proverb in its real context to be recorded before making a generalisation. In order to give an analytical insight, the procedure of my analysis will be generally guided by a model of study which I have sketched See Figure 1.
This model will lead us to two parts of analysis: Firstly, as I believe that some ways of reasoning about human experience are truly universal, therefore the conclusions of Goodwin and Wenzel , first published for Anglo-American proverbs should also generally be reflected on Malay proverbs that: i there are parallels between what the logic textbooks teach and what the proverbs teach and ii a significant number of logical principles can be obtained.
I believe that there is a universal, general notion of logical categories and hypothesise that the Malay folks will basically possess the same logical principles but with different rhetorical-dialectical attitudes, and these can be traced from their culture and peribahasas. Secondly, since all human beings are generally rational but at the same time full of passion, I believe that it would be quite natural for the Malay folks to locate their sense of passion as well in their proverbs.
In order to guide my discussion and analysis on this part, I will be using Norrick as my platform of analysis see Chapter 5. Taking his idea as a stepping stone, I would further justify my arguments that emotions do play an important part as well in the Malay proverbs. I hypothesise that the two important sources of identifying their passions are pertinent: i Creative and symbolic application of metaphorical animals and plants; and ii Hati as the source of passions.
The purpose of this research is not an ethnographic study of the Malays; it is neither a content analysis64 nor is it to seek for the origin of any single Malay proverb, but rather to address some more general philosophical and conceptual questions on how the Malays approach conflict resolution or resolve disagreement argument, i. In order to justify my hypotheses, I will be deriving my evidences and argumentation from various sources, viz.
According to my interpretation, if we ponder and contemplate seriously about this Rational Wing of Argument, we will find out that they are generally quite in line with three integrated aspects of human feelings, viz. For these three aspects of human feelings, I will call them the Emotional Wing of Argument.
How well are these two wings incorporated and submerged into our sub-consciousness? This general form as a product of argument is generally universal as it is a physiological product of our body brain that arises from a certain fundamental bodily experience. Bodily functions of our brain are biologically universal; 2 If we look at argument as a process rhetorical aspect , then it is a matter of culture, where different cultural milieu gives rise to the different rhetorical styles and patterns of effective communication.
Some cultures stress on the direct, clear and plain rhetoric, others might go for veiled criticism; 3 Finally, people argue or solve their problems according to certain procedure argument as procedure , some choose to deal with their problem through direct confrontation e.
These procedural aspects of argument are determined by the rules of language of a speaker whether English, Chinese, German, Malay etc. Language and dialectical dimension of argument are comparatively the same; they go for rules and procedures. Analogically, let us just compare it with a pair of wings of a bird, and let us symbolically take this bird as garuda. Garuda is a type of big, meat-eating eagle-like bird, which was said to have the extraordinary ability to fly but which is already extinct now.
Its extinction describes even better the idea of an ideal state. In order to achieve this ideal state, it will be best if a person could achieve the balance of these two wings, and know which wing to use in order to soar to the right, and which wing to use to soar to the left. How a person resolves his or her conflict will very much depend on how and when he or she should use his or her rationality, when he or she should use his or her emotion and when to create a sense of balance between them.
The same logic goes well with garuda as which direction this bird will fly is very much dependent on the movement of its wings. A person might fail, in the process of heading towards this ideal, but he or she should bear in mind that rationality and emotion should not be treated as contradictory and mutually opposing but complimentary and situational instead. All this while, jentayu grateful has been used by the Malays to symbolise a person who is berbudi or a person who is willing to sacrifice himself or herself for a good cause see e.
Are peribahasas relevant in that sense to represent the logical and rhetorical thought of the Malay folks as demanded by the method outlined above? The answer depends on how we look at peribahasas. It should be understood that peribahasa normally performs at least three different roles in Malay discourses, viz.
The rhetorical or argumentative functions of proverbs will become clearer if we look at various pairs of combating or duelling proverbs, which are contradictory on the surface, as some proverbs apply in certain rhetorical situations, whereas others are appropriate for other occasions. Two heads are better than one; The pen is mightier than the sword vs. Actions speak louder than words; Clothes make a man vs. The squeaky wheel gets the grease and Ignorance is bliss vs. Knowledge is power.
At face value, proverbs are seen only to be propositions but in the real context of argumentation, proverbs have always functioned as folk enthymemes66 See Green and Pepicello White , , although did not directly relate the proverb with enthymemes, his idea nonetheless seemed to connote the notion of proverb as enthymemes: Interlocutors comprehend proverb meaning through a process of inference that allows them to link the saying with prior understandings and to fill in unstated propositions.
Even though this is so in much of natural discourse, proverbial sayings tend to be particularly figurative, partial, and indirect [italics added]. It should be understood that besides serving its aesthetic purposes and ethical functions, proverbs also serves their argumentative role as part of traditional communication, often serving to persuade, exhort, or criticise. These roles aesthetic, ethical and argumentative are always intertwined and act as a whole in presenting a general idea of Malay rhetoric.
However, in this research, I will put more attention into their logical function, rhetorical strategy and dialectical criticism rather than their literary beauty or ethical advices. The argumentative role of Malay proverbs is also quite obvious. Kalau ada orang yang membahagi-bahagikan demikian, hanya satu pembahagian yang dibuat-buat sahaja. Bidal dan peribahasa pun dapat juga dipakai untuk mematahkan bicara orang , ; bold added Actually there are no differences between bidalan maxims, guides, metaphors , pepatah, petitih sayings alluding to social customs , tamsil comparison, similes and perumpamaan proverbs.
If anyone tries to classify them into such categories, they are only an artificial division. For example, pepatah sayings originated from the word, pematah, which means to refute other people argument. Maxims and peribahasa proverbs could also be used to refute other people argument. Gazali Dunia seemed to contradict his earlier work, which was written in Pepatah adalah satu kata jang mengandung kias-ibarat utjapan tak langsung, terhadap pihak kedua. Jang disentuh oleh pepatah, ialah pikiran, perasaan seseorang.
Seseorang jang punja perasaan atau pikiran dapat memahami makna pepatah, sekurang- kurangnja dapat mendorong pikiran untuk memahami makna pepatah tersebut , 14; Bold added. Pepatah did not come from the word: patah, which was used to refute to knock down other speeches, no! Pepatah is a word that contains indirect analogical expression against the second party. Bold parts of this quotation with bold parts of the previous quotation. The first title is chosen because it is the first compilation by a Malay, as most of the previous compilations were done by Western scholars.
On the other hand, the second source is preferred as the proverbs involved were in many cases written down for the first time by pioneering British civil servants, such as Hugh Clifford, William Maxwell and inside the dictionary of R. Wilkinson The third title is selected as it was recognised as the most complete title of Malay peribahasa collection published in Malaysia. The proverbs will also be taken from Malay Sayings Brown , especially for the translation, which will be cited as MS, and then followed by the page.
Apart from the translation that comes handy, this collection is chosen as various proverbs from different literary sources, viz. Hikayat Abdullah, Sejarah Melayu were included. Besides the above mentioned collections, certain selected proverbs are also taken from Mestika Bahasa Mohd. For the references and discussion on simpulan bahasa, Kamus Simpulan Bahasa Abdullah Hussain will be used. All these proverb collections do not claim to be exclusive, but will at least be able to act as a corpus for my investigation in order to see the Malay mind.
According to Hassan Ahmad a, 10 : "Daripada korpus ini kita dapat melihat akal budi Melayu, pandangan hidup mereka, nilai sosial mereka, epistemologi mereka, dan sebagainya From this corpus, we can see the Malay akal budi, their worldview, social values, epistemology, etc. In chapter 2, the author gives a general overview of the Malay worldview, their classification of proverbs and the uses of peribahasa. Explanation of certain key terminology i. Chapter 5 will touch on the extra-logical elements i.
Finally, in the concluding Chapter 6, the findings of this research will be presented with argumentation and will include suggestions of further study. Conclusion From the literature reviewed, it is clear that much work is needed in order to make the Malay proverbs known to the international paremiologists. It will be rather unfortunate if the Malay proverbs are left unattended when the Malay language is one of the important languages of South East Asian countries with a total of more than million speakers.
It is also rather unfortunate for us to ignore the importance of this language, which had been successfully used in carrying out the task of spreading the message of four religions, viz. More work need to be done to unravel the mind of the Malay through their proverbs.
It is perhaps the end of the beginning. With this hope, let us proceed to chapter two to understand the Malay worldview and how this worldview was presented in their proverbs before venturing into the realm of thought and emotions of the Malay folks in the following chapters. It is hoped that this study will pave the way for further discussions towards a more systematic analysis of the traditional Malay mind, their proverbial logic and their theory of argumentation.
For more details on the development of western logic, see Kneale and Kneale To know the whole history of logic, including logic in non-European cultures, see Dumitriu It is actually difficult and problematic to divide the world into East and West or between Oriental and Occidental. I use the term here in a very conscious manner for the convenience of my discussion. I will explain when confusion occurs. For the discussion on the brief history of Indian philosophical tradition, see Phillips To see the character of logic in India, see Matilal For an in-depth study of the Chinese language and logic, see Halbsmeier and Halbsmeier In Halbsmeier , the author gives a special emphasis on the conceptual history of logical terminology in ancient China and an overview of the development of logical reflection in ancient China in terms of the forms of arguments that were deployed in ancient Chinese texts and their theoretical concerns with logical matters.
In order to have a better understanding on the Chinese mind, see Allinson a, b. See also Hongladarom n. For a discussion on a critical comparison of Indian, Chinese, Islamic and European modes of argument, see Daor Tan Yuquan agrees up to a certain extent that there is a logical tradition in China, but he claims that logical tradition of Moism and School of Names were not dominant as compared with Confucianism and Daoism. To him, the backwardness of the Chinese in science was due to their lack of logical reasoning application.
The studies of pure philosophy in the context of Malay world are hardly obtainable. Efforts that can be mentioned so far are the works of Finngeir Hiorth Jnanasiddhanta, Sutasoma is interesting to be mentioned, but limited to the Hindu-Buddhist philosophy within Javanese-Balinese context and not the indigenous view of the Malays as suggested from their folklore i.
The philosophy of Melanesians, however, is discussed in Mercado Perhaps one work that can be quoted that discussed the Malay language and their thinking is Asmah There is also a general exploration of the Malay thinking trait in their socio-economic and political life to confront the challenges of the twentieth century Mohamad Abu Bakar I have tried to focus on the Malay mind, especially from the perspective of Informal Logic through their peribahasas in Lim , but feel that the discussion should be deeper and requires more insight and contemplation.
It was said that actually through Palembang, Sumatra that the Buddhism mind training programme was spread to Tibet as Atisha, the pioneer of Buddhism in Tibet was previously studying in Sumatra. Even I-Ching had to come over to Sumatra to learn about the teaching of Buddha. Lately, the study of emotion has attracted the interest of philosophers and psychologists.
See e. Calhoun and Solomon In this section, however, I will only look at the use of argument in Chinese philosophy to portray a contrast between the West and the East. However, due to the problem of having no academic references i. For the development of informal logic, see also Johnson and Blair , Blair and Johnson , Johnson and Groarke He criticises the monolithic logical-mathematical intelligence that shapes the western civilisation.
In his Frames of Mind , first published in , he proposes the idea on Multiple Intelligence MI , that there should be at least seven types of intelligence, viz. Later he adds-in another type of intelligence, viz. This term was later popularised by Daniel P. Goleman in his book Emotional Intelligence Bantam Books, He calls the three as successful intelligence. He has also pointed out in Hiorth 6 — see bibliographical details in note 5 that until our century the philosophical elements of Sufism seem to have been the only form of philosophy among the Indonesian Muslims.
For some aspects of Sufism as understood and practised among the Malays, see Syed Naguib al-Attas For an analysis on pure scientific research, focusing on astronomy, geophysics and physics in the Dutch East Indies, viz. Java during the ninetieth and twentieth centuries, see Pyenson According to Mohamad Radzi, even myths and pseudo-scientific are logic and rational in that particular context. It was only due to the clash of civilisation that certain thinking was considered as unable to explain this nature, and as such it was considered as irrational and unscientific.
But one of those possibilities perhaps was due to the Malay sense of hina diri, where languages from the Islamic world or from the West are always considered as more accurate and precise. This attitude has forced the indigenous words to die. The word tetuang udara, for example, which means radio, is not known at all to most of the youngsters now. It has always been translated into English as courtesy or kindness. This word however is rather ambiguous and represents some kinds of mixture between ethics, feelings and intellect in practice.
Are logical thought and critical thinking something universal or culturally biased? I personally believe that generally we share quite a certain amount of the same logical patterns across cultures, just like we share a rather universal linguistic pattern despite the differences of languages we use. For those who are interested in various arguments on particularity and universality of argument quality, see Siegel and also R.
Is critical thinking culturally biased? Teaching Philosophy 21, pp. See Marks and Ames , But it will be unwise and inappropriate to claim that proverb is peribahasa and peribahasa is proverb due to the differences of cultural interpretation on the concept of genre among folklorists within different traditions.
Harnish also attempted to distinguish the differences between idiom, metaphor, saying and proverb. It is normally known as ungkapan in Indonesia and perambahan in Brunei. Sabaruddin includes the Malay idiom simpulan bahasa, kiasan or ungkapan as part of his corpus of Malay proverbs. For more example of one word Malay idiom e. See supra, note Peribahasa as generic term for bidalan, pepatah, perumpamaan, perbilangan, simpulan bahasa and ungkapan have various responses.
Some agree that ungkapan and simpulan bahasa should fall into the same category, but there are others who tend to oppose See Daniel Jebon Janaun , 27; Tan Chin Kwang , 5. See for example: Taylor a ; Mieder a, b and g. Mieder and Dundes For a discussion on a few examples of contradictory proverbs in German, see Gabriel , See also Gorham, D.
A proverbs test for clinical and experimental use. See Psychological Reports, 1: Malay Proverbs. Bidal Melayu. Malay Proverbs with Translations and Explanations. Singapore: Qayam, ; Izhab, Ismail. Malay Proverbs-Sayings and pantuns of Old. With Translations and Explanations in English.
Penang: Sinaran Bros, ? Cited in Paczolay , However, there are exceptions lately. Two articles on proverbs in the Malay-Indonesia world have been published in Proverbium, viz. Fanany and Fanany and Lim Kim Hui The thorough literature review should be up-dated from time to time.
Furthermore, even proverbs can be obtained everywhere. Brown , Eenige ophelderingen omtrent de Maleische spreekwoorden en spreekwijzen. BKI 3. And ii Klinkert, H. Vervolg op de Maleische Spreekwoorden benevens eenige Maleische raadsels en kinderspelen. This new edition includes also simpulan bahasa Brunei, which is normally known as perambahan.
This however does not really alter the findings of my analysis as there is also more than hati-related simpulan bahasa in the new collection. For a very brief review of this new edition, see Nursurya Amien Prior to Vol. There were Maxwell a, b, , , Clifford , Vol. Saman for the comparison of Malay-Philippine proverbs.
Therefore, my separation of logical principles as the realm of the mind and emotional patterns as the realm of the heart is merely for the purposes of analysis. However, the overall analysis is tightened by an integrated system. Certain analyses and statistical figures obtained, however, were chosen and analysed conveniently or by purpose in order to pose a trend-cluster for e. However, the choice of garuda or jentayu in this section is only something symbolic and interpretative, which carries no serious substantive understanding.
His disposition is generally kindly, his manners are polite and easy. Never cringing, he is reserved with strangers and suspicious, though he does not show it He is a good talker, speaks in parables, quotes proverbs and wise saws, has a strong sense of humour, and is very fond of a good joke.
He takes an interest in the affairs of his neighbours and is consequently a gossip. He is a Muhammadan and a fatalist but he is also very superstitious Swettenham , ; italics added. Introduction The Malay people are known to be gentle. It was told that even if they engage in a disagreement or they dislike certain ideas, they will choose the most polite diction or proverbial saying in conveying their thoughts so that the hearer would not get hurt. Their language is renowned for its beauty and sweet melody.
This seemingly old language, before having its written form, began at one time as nothing but oral tradition. Yusof Mustafa , v. The other is their quatrains or pantun. Every nation possesses its own collections of proverbs — the Malays being no exception — which have been accumulated over the past centuries and have become their diamonds of thought.
Their first appearance in literary form is often an adaptation of an oral saying. The Malay proverbs have always been considered as the work of society and therefore no individual author or sources of texts can be found. The study of folklore in the twentieth century has brought renewed interest in the proverb as a reflection of folk culture, and Malay proverbs should not be left behind.
In this chapter, I would like to discuss the worldview of the Malays and how this worldview had been presented in their proverbs; what functions proverbs play in their early history and in this new millennium; how these proverbial phrases had been categorised — in which styles or forms; and what content that really dominated the Malay thinking behind their peribahasa. All these differences have, either directly or indirectly, influenced how they perceive the creation of the world, natural phenomena, creation of man, issues on mind and body or the concept of the soul today.
It is not that easy to really separate between what is the worldview of the Malays and what kind of influences were introduced by the other traditions. To add salt to the wound of this problem is that their tradition was entirely oral. Oral traditions easily die out when overwhelmed by colonial conquerors or external influences. In order to reduce the possibility of being influenced, the closer solution will be using the folkloristic approach and examining their early belief.
Winstedt apparently had a very clear-cut idea of the cultural development of the Malay people as expressed in the title of his book: The Malay Magician Being Shaman, Saiva and Sufi Putting aside his concentration on borrowing and adaptation, Winstedt was doing an interesting cultural generalisation.
Nevertheless, the arrival of Western colonisation did play a significant role as well on how the Malays perceive themselves and their surrounding. Servant mentality had pushed the Malays into a state of self-denigration with no confidence, which later altered their mindset and conceptual worldview of rendah diri into hina-diri, after more than years of cultural camouflage. I will set my discussion and construction of the Malay worldview through my own observation, interpretation and data from their folk tales and folk dramas.
It is believed that the worldview of an ethnic group can be traced from their folklore too. Many folklorists have attempted to explore this issue e. Dundes , Kuusi A close look at the Malay worldview from their folkloristic approach, to my knowledge, was undertaken by Md.
It is not possible to deal exhaustively with the Malay worldview according to what has been defined in this limited section. As such, only those which are salient and basic to this study will be discussed here. Those salient features are the relationship between human and society i. I shall also propose my own conception of the Malay semangat, its relationship between semangat, self i. The Malays have their own cosmological and metaphysical interpretations of how and of what element a person had been created.
Generally, they believe that a human consists of body and mind. According to their cosmology, the Malays believe that humans were created through the combination of four basic elements: tanah earth , api fire , air water and angin wind. Anatomically, each of these four elements was supposed to represent each organ of the human body respectively, viz.
Almak sic? Samad Ahmad , Out of these various components, semangat soul is the most dominant and well-discussed topic see Skeat ; Endicott In this universe, the Malays believe that it is not only human and animals that are animate, that is, having semangat spirit or soul and powers, but plants and other objects also share these attributes. From this perspective, the Malays are not alone. African and American Indian tribal societies typically embrace animism — the belief that entities throughout nature are endowed with souls, often thought to be souls of ancestors.
Since nature i. Generally, there are two types of spirits: semangat baik good spirit and semangat jahat bad spirit from which good and bad values originated. The Malays, for example, believe that paddy has a good spirit and therefore semangat padi the soul of paddy must be respected Ismail Hamid but not the monitor lizard biawak. The most obvious example of anthropomorphism in this context is the existence of semangat padi. They explain the phenomena of reproduction, growth, decay, and death in the rice on the same principles on which they explain the corresponding phenomena in human beings Frazer , Asmah Haji Omar further elucidated the importance of this spirit.
Any crudity in the handling of the padi plants or grains may drive the semangat away. This explains the succession of rituals that the padi farmer has to conduct and taboos that he has to observe from the moment the seeds are sown to the time the padi grains are stored away p.
In spite of all the religions mentioned above, the Malays generally believe that any event that occurred was directly or indirectly related to two mutually opposing good and bad semangat. This conception of good and bad semangat was used later to explain how the Malays perceive the idea of causal relationship of what had happened, is happening and will happen.
According to Wan Abdul Kadir a, 55 , there are not so many differences in terms of the framework of thought between the previous society and the modern one in shaping their worldview. The tendency to search for a cause and effect relationship is something which is formed within the brain, and with this framework of thought, humans have used it from time to time in advancing their knowledge.
The search for the causal relationship between certain phenomena and events has existed since the very beginning between human and nature. To Abdul Kadir, when causes cannot be traced from something that can be obviously felt or seen, the Malays will be forced to frame them from their supernatural being. The concept of good and bad semangat that are inherent in certain objects, animals and plants which the Malays have observed and believed also determined their generalisation e.
This conception of good and bad values has also directly and indirectly influenced their patterns of analogy e. As the Malay folks believe that all objects, animals and plants are inter-related in this universe with one common internal element, semangat, therefore, we should know when, where and how to emulate the values of good spirit and to avoid the bad spirit in order to have a harmonious way of living.
For instance, the Malays accept that the actions and attitudes of animals in their surrounding might carry certain metaphysical interpretations and meanings: During a journey, when a biawak crosses in front of a person, it suggests that something bad will occur and therefore he or she should be careful in the journey. Many proverbs can be substantiated to justify this argument. Elements of good and bad are not confined to plants and animals alone, but do emerge in their understanding of space and time.
The Malays believe that no matter where, there is always a space which belongs to the makhluk halus spirits and therefore that place is not suitable for them to stay in or to build a house since that particular piece of land is said to become tanah keras lit. This good-bad dichotomous conception also exists in their understanding of time. Hence, for instance, they will choose the right moment to start their journeys or work. Let us now visualise this general good-bad dualistic thinking and its relation with budi in order to assist the explanation of the Malay worldview See Figure 2.
This mutually opposing character between the good and the bad is no accident if we look at the ways of primitive animistic thinking where everything has been categorised in duality or either-or polarity i. There is no intermediary category and the scientific precision of up to the most accurate degree is of course beyond the scope of our discussion. The reverse of syllables between tu-han god, the Lord and han-tu also suggests their dualistic world-view between good and bad.
Good is the reverse of bad as tuhan is the reverse of hantu. In this process, however, the normal person should depend on a mediator e. Various rituals should be performed as a form of respect. Mercado in his philosophical study about the Filipino mind, especially from the aspect of soul and spirit concluded that Filipino thought on the matter of soul-spirit is quite oriental.
Does Mercado's idea also reflect the matter of soul-spirit among the Malays? To me, the answer should be a positive one and that the Eastern philosophical models are closer to the Malay mind. In the Malay worldview, we saw the oriental family resemblance in the concept of soul and spirit.
If we were to look at the Malay worldview on budi and badi, which I have constructed from their folklore and folk beliefs, we will see that the Malay concepts of soul and spirit are closer to that of the Chinese rather than that of the Europeans.
As early as B. P'o is related to the contraction of yin. P'o is also related to kuei, the negative spiritual force or ghost See Chan , , especially p. In this context, it is similar with the aspect of badi in the Malay worldview of semangat. Hence, we know that both p'o and badi are the negative spirit, which will emerge after a violent death and that they are situated in the realm of hantu ghost.
On the other hand, hun is related to the expansion of the yang. Hun is also related to shen, the positive spiritual force, or the realm of tuhan God. In comparison with the Malay worldview, hun is closer to the aspect of budi. He further added that: Plants and objects may be different from man in physical structure, but they share with the latter a common internal element, the semangat.
In another respect, man too cannot be completely differentiated from the gods, for he has his origin in them.
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|Minyak bulus halal haram forex||This is when they get to meet the buyers and cut deals. Does the Malay thinking ignore analytical skills, logical reasoning and empiricism completely? Organic standards not only cover the farm where the animal lives and the food it eats, it covers the entire journey, the abattoir has to be certified in minyak bulus halal haram forex own right; the meat processor or butcher also has to be certified. Method of Study This research is a first scientific and theoretical attempt of using analytical-philosophical perspectives at judging the Malay mind through the repertoire of Malay proverbs. The country began making significant efforts to develop Islamic finance ahead of other countries. The development of the sector is boosted with the Kuantan Port City KPC initiative which has the potential to transform Kuantan port into a major port and key gateway for Asia Pacific trade.|
|Minyak bulus halal haram forex||If not, what is more important in order to understand reality, life and surroundings? Kindly contact: Mr. As far as the Malays are concerned, a minyak bulus halal haram forex of this nature — in unravelling the thread of the Malay mind — has not been attempted before. Compared to mainstream travellers, Muslim travellers go in larger groups, stay away longer, and overall, spend more money than the average traveller. This increasing trend is causing a demand boom for Halal food and consumer products. In addition, terms suspected of being trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks have been appropriately capitalized, although H Media cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. It is not that easy to really separate between what is the worldview of the Malays and what kind of influences were introduced by the other traditions.|
|Def of revenue||They need to see the possibilities in the Halal sector in ways that they already understand before they will be able to recognise new, and perhaps less obvious, opportunities. Another scholar which tried to relate the emergence of logical thought to the arrival of Islam is Mat Rofa Ismail, who concluded that: Mantik, dituntut sebagai ilmu pengantar kepada seluruh ilmu. There are certain standards, but there are also certain innovations and differences in each of them. Local producers must know that Halal products are safe and hygienic for consumption by everyone. Ahadith sicon the contrary, glean their potency from their sacred status; only the Quran surpasses them as embodiments of religious authority.|
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