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In our case, the command looks like this:. We can see from the previous picture that the ticket was successfully created and written out. To do this you want to type the following command:. In the above screenshot, I cleared all existing tickets, then applied the created ticket, and then we can see the golden ticket in use.
Now that the ticket has been applied, a low level user account can now act as a Domain Administrator:. So, our other option for generating and using golden tickets is to use the mimikatz binary. You can download that from here. Once downloaded, navigate to the mimikatz binary and start it. We can re-use the information that we already have to generate our golden ticket. Thanks to Benjamin Delpy gentilkiwi for letting me know that I failed at redacting my own krbtgt hash, haha.
Pic below is now updated. The ticket is saved to the invalidadmin. Now that the ticket has been created, we just want to apply it with Mimikatz. This can be done by running the following command:. Writing this out helped me gain a better understanding about generating and using golden tickets, hope that it can help someone else too!
Hello, I tried two scenerios seperately. In first sceneio I created a Golden Ticket in a standalone computer. In second scenerio I used Golden Ticket in a standalone computer. First: While creating Golden Ticket, I used a meterpreter session that belongs to a standalone computer not a domain PC. Within your session, you want to load the kiwi extension by typing: load kiwi Now that the kiwi extension is loaded, when you type help, you should see the additional commands that are available for you.
This can be done by running the following command: kerberos::ptt invalidadmin. Go to noip. Then on the connect tab of the Kiwi admin page select "DUC domain" on the menu. Then enter the noip. In the status field below you should see the response "DUC started successfully" or an error message if there is a problem. Configuring a reverse proxy At this time no new requests to use the reverse proxy service are being accepted.
Multiple proxied Kiwis behind a single Internet connection New It is possible to run multiple Kiwis using the proxy behind a single Internet connection. Do this by requesting one unique user key per Kiwi. Then give each Kiwi a unique internal and external port number on the admin page network tab e. Your router must have the external port open to each Kiwi. You'll have to get initial access to the Kiwi using one of the methods above. But then you can go to the admin page e.
This is a standard feature of the Beagle and instructions are available here. Note that it requires the installation of a USB networking driver on your computer. Change the entry for eth0 from using DHCP to using a static address.
Use the entry for usb0 a guide. But note the Kiwi software itself does not support using USB networking. This method is only for gaining initial access to the Beagle in order to change the Ethernet configuration so the Ethernet can subsequently be used. Using a serial connection As a last resort it is possible to connect a serial cable between the Beagle and a host computer. You'll need to purchase a USB-to-serial cable that is designed to connect to the Beagle serial port header.
More information is here. Be certain to buy a cable that presents 3. You'll need to remove the Kiwi board in order to access the Beagle's serial header. Use a serial com program to login to the Beagle at Use the settings for usb0 at the end of the file as a guide.
Point-to-point Ethernet connection to a host computer Updated For step-by-step instructions on how to do this with Window 10 see this Kiwi forum post. This should works with most recent Windows versions. Some users simply want to install an Ethernet cable directly between the Kiwi and a laptop or PC and not involve other equipment like a router and not involve the Internet. This might be because they are traveling or only have a wireless connection between their PC and an Internet access device that has no Ethernet ports.
We now have a solution for this case. Starting with the v1. A random-but-unique link-local IP address in the Similar software present on all modern Macs and PCs does the same thing. Now the PC and Kiwi should be able to talk to each other. Since you don't know what IP address has been assigned to the Kiwi you instead use the name kiwisdr. Macs are already setup.
So now you can connect to the Kiwi by using kiwisdr. Note that it takes more than 60 seconds after the Kiwi boots before it decides there is no DHCP and it should assign a link-local address. So please be patient before trying to connect from the PC.
A question remains however. If your PC only has a wireless connection to the Internet, and your new Kiwi was delivered with an installed software version prior to v1. The answer is to download a special version of the Kiwi software from the Internet onto your PC.
Then copy it to a micro-SD card. And finally re-flash the Kiwi on-board filesystem from the SD card. Follow the instructions here. Each tab at the top of the page selects a group of related configuration parameters or status information. A restart button for the server will appear when certain parameters are changed. Use it when you have made all of your changes in all of the tabs. Restart can be used when the server is behaving oddly.
Reboot of Debian can be done if the system has been running for many days or weeks and seems to have problems that might be Linux related. It is especially important to use the power off button before removing power from the Kiwi as this first halts Debian in a safe fashion that will prevent any possible filesystem corruption.
The Kick button can be used to close all active user connections i. This is useful when there are users who have been logged in for a very long period of time. The Inactivity time limit field can be used to limit the amount of time a user can be connected when not actively changing the SDR controls i.
The timeout period is reset as soon as some adjustment to the controls is made. A value of zero disables any time limit checking. This is the default. Similarly the 24 hour per-IP address time limit field can be used to limit the amount of time a user from a specific incoming IP address can be connected during a 24 hour time period.
This period is independent of the inactivity limit described above. A value of zero disables any checking. Config The sensitivity of your antenna will determine how the base waterfall colors will appear. We suggest changing the Initial waterfall min field to compensate. Here is an example of base waterfall colors that are "washed out" with too much green because the default value of WF min on the main control panel is too low at dBFS: click for larger Here is the same waterfall with WF min set to dbFS: click for larger Once you have found a good value of WF min set that value in the Initial waterfall min field on the Config tab of the admin webpage.
The Max receiver frequency menu allows the top reception frequency to be increased to 32 MHz. This is to accomodate some users who want to down-convert signals into the 30 - 32 MHz region. The Frequency scale offset kHz field is used for this purpose.
Enter the number of kHz necessary to bring the converted frequency to the correct position on the scale. Enter the frequencies covered by your down-converted setup. For example setting and in the fields will make rx. For other frequencies a frequency range in MHz will be displayed. So if you entered and then "50MHz - 52MHz" will be displayed. The coverage fields can be used even if you are not using a down-converter.
You could set the fields to and and "0. Webpage Map field Note: Consider specifying coordinates that don't reveal your exact location. You can get the "Google format" map reference by Googling the name of your location town etc. Grid square field If you are not familiar with grid squares just click on the check grid button. A webpage will appear where you can enter your location name and receive a 6 character grid square identifier to enter in the field.
You can replace the default startup background photo with your own. Scale a photo file jpeg, png, etc. Although there is a Photo height field, changing it from pixels currently doesn't work. Change the Photo title and Photo description fields as appropriate for your new photo. The Owner info field allows you to display a message, including HTML, in the middle part of the top bar. Add your own logo here, short message or maybe a Paypal donation button to help defray your Internet costs for a publicly-accessible Kiwi.
Note that the Title field can contain HTML, like a link, just like the Status field even though there is no preview shown. Public Note: Your Kiwi will appear on other sites like rx. Registration on rx. No API key is necessary. Just fill-out your listing information name, location, etc. The registration status field should eventually show a message this can sometimes take several minutes. Make sure your location on the various map sites e.
A common mistake is not specifying a negative longitude for the Americas or a negative latitude for locations in the southern hemisphere we've made this mistake ourselves. You can use the check map button to verify. Note that the latitude and longitude are entered as signed decimal degrees, surrounded by parenthesis, e. Not hours-minutes-seconds, no "N S E W" notation, no "degree" symbols, etc.
If you zoom in you'll notice that the map sites dither the location a fair amount to help protect your privacy. Use it to fill-out the location field automatically. The same is true for the grid square field. DX The DX tab not available on mobile devices controls the content displayed in the DX label and band bar areas above the frequency scale. And also the "select band" menu on the main control panel. As you make changes they should be immediately reflected in all active user connections except for file import discussed below which requires a restart.
Changes are saved as you type. The message Changes saved will appear when a save occurs. It is extremely important that you maintain timely backups of the label database. Especially if you've spent many hours carefully curating an extensive, customized set of labels.
The band bar and select band menu information is stored in the normal Kiwi configuration file. This file is saved, along with everything else, when you make a full system backup to SD card see admin page "Backup" tab. You could also backup the files individually using a file transfer program such as WinSCP. They are: DX labels Defines the labels themselves.
Band bars Defines content of band bars and select band menu on user page. Band service menu Defines content of Service menu appearing in Band bars section above. If you hover the mouse over the icon a popup will appear with additional information. DX labels The fields are the same as those in the user connection DX label edit panel.
The duplicate function allows a new label to be created before the first and after the last existing entries, or anywhere in-between. The button allows the optional schedule information to be added. If the schedule is the default always active, - , 7-days then the schedule controls are not displayed to save screen space. Use the button to reset the schedule to the default. More information about label schedules. There are search controls at the top right for the Freq , Ident and Notes fields.
A matching field is highlighted in yellow closest match for frequency. The searches will wrap. The frequency is in kHz and MHz notation can be used e. DX type menu The Type menu in the DX labels section above has some values associated with the default dx. But just as with the DX labels you can change the type values to be whatever you like.
However, it is important to understand how changing the type values will effect existing labels. If you have labels that use a particular type, let's say using the type menu name associated with the T1 entry on the DX type menu section. And then you clear the Menu entry name field for T1. What should happen to the Type menu? The answer is that a temporary name called, in this case, T1 appears in the menu to remind you there are still labels using the T1 definition.
If you subsequently change the type name to something non-blank the menu and label will follow the change. You can define up to 14 different type entries. The 15th type is used in implementing masked frequencies and cannot be changed or removed.
Color utilities like HTML color picker or color names by shade are useful. And also the content of the select band menu in the main control panel. The order of entries in the band bars section exactly determine the content of the select band menu. So for example it is important that all entries with the same Service type are grouped together so they appear under a single service heading in the menu. The select band menu can define band bars and also single frequencies commonly used that do not have an associated band bar e.
The other menu entries, including any , always imply the entry will appear on both the band scale and in the band menu. For a single frequency entry set the Min and Max frequency values equal. Note that entries with ITU region specified typically have different values in the Chan field to account for the different channel spacing in those regions.
The band bar name is also augmented by the Menu entry name service name and optional Long name fields described below. For example this is how the time station entries work. You could e. It is possible to have Min and Max frequency values in this list larger than 32 MHz for when a frequency offset is being used i. Band service menu This section defines the Service menu in the preceding section. The HTML color name field has the same specifications as described above.
An example of how the resulting band bar will look with the given color and service name appears on the right. The two name fields here, Menu entry name service name and Long name and the Band name in the preceding section are used in slightly different ways to construct naming in the select band menu and the band bars themselves.
Let's consider a service name of Broadcast , a band name of 41m and a long name of Shortwave Broadcast. In the select band menu 41m will appear under the Broadcast heading, along with any other bands with that same service name. The band bar will have a different name depending how wide it is as a function of the current zoom level. At a minimum 41m will be shown unless the bar is so short that no text fits. If it fits 41m followed by Broadcast will be shown.
But since the long name is not blank in this example 41m followed by Shortwave Broadcast will be the actual name shown. Editing the dx. Note that as soon as you import upload the Kiwi must be immediately restarted you will be prompted. If any illegal format JSON or CSV is detected in the labels after the restart error messages will appear in the Kiwi log and a count of the number of bad labels will appear on the DX tab.
The bad labels are discarded. So to repair you must fix them in the file and import again. Each JSON file entry has a number of fixed fields followed by some optional parameters. Some characters in the string fields e. They are listed below. When you edit a file you must use the encoding, except you can enter UTF-8 characters directly.
The UTF-8 will be encoded when the files are imported and subsequently re-exported. No reason to use the other control chars. For CSV files the semicolon ; is the field separator character. The first line contains a legend describing the order of the fields. To include the double quote character " inside a string field, like the Ident or Notes fields, repeat it twice. This is a standard escape mechanism supported by spreadsheet programs. Where "SWL" is the well-known abbreviation for "shortwave listener" and "RF82" is a 4-character grid square describing your Kiwi's general location available from this site.
There are other conventions as well, e. This allows you to divide the 4 channels into two sets: a publicly-available set requiring no password and a private set requiring a password. Owners of the more popular Kiwis have long complained that the channels are always full and they, or their friends, can never get in without restarting the server and dumping everyone off. It is hoped this feature may persuade some owners of completely closed Kiwis in desirable locations to make some of their channels public.
Controlling the server from a Beagle root login Although most of the control and configuration of the server is accomplished via the admin webpage, there are some shell commands that can be used. Login to the Beagle from another computer as the root user.
A shortcut for this is the cdp command alias change directory project. Once there a number of commands can be used to control the server: ku Kiwi up Restart the server. There are a number of others that are less useful. Most of these features as also available on the admin webpage. For example the log files can be viewed under the Log tab and the server can restarted with a button on the Control tab.
Special access-related configuration There are several configuration options related to admin access of the Kiwi. The file names and their contents are: opt. Multiple addresses and domain names are not currently supported. Just create a file of this name. The file contents don't matter e.
This has no effect on any other security measures you may, or may not, have taken on the Kiwi e. Manual frequency calibration If your GPS antenna is connected and receiving signals then the KiwiSDR clock frequency will be continuously calibrated automatically.
If not you can perform a manual calibration. There are two sources of clock oscillator error. Inherent error due to manufacturing variations and error that changes with the ambient temperature. A manual calibration will correct the inherent error, and error due to the current temperature, but will not track error due to future temperature changes.
Follow these steps: Tune to a station transmitting a carrier on a known, accurate frequency like a time station WWV 15 MHz in this example. Use the highest frequency station possible as this will show the most offset i. Zoom all the way in and select the exact center of the carrier line in the waterfall with the mouse. The yellow vertical bar of the passband should align with the waterfall carrier line. See image below. Right-click to bring up the menu and select cal ADC clock admin.
You will be prompted for the admin password if necessary. A confirmation dialog will appear showing how far the clock must be adjusted to get to the nearest 1 kHz. The normalized ADC clock adjustment in parts-per-million ppm is shown, 4. As soon as confirm is clicked the waterfall will shift to reflect the new calibration.
This new calibration value will be remembered and applied on every Kiwi restart. It will be reset to zero when GPS corrections are occurring. Optionally downloading the software if you lost the SD card etc. However there are cases where you might want to download the software: your micro-SD card doesn't work or you want to get a head-start on installing the software if you've ordered just the Kiwi board and are supplying your own Beagle.
An upgrade to Debian 10 requires a more complicated procedure described below. Simply following the procedure below is NOT sufficient to fully upgrade to Debian 10 example: your Kiwi's configuration from Debian 8 will not be restored! No Kiwi software is installed. Follow the procedure on the Kiwi Forum to install the Kiwi software.
In case you are unfamiliar with the process of installing software on a Beagle here's how it works. The micro-SD card is what's known as a 'flasher'. In other words all the software previously installed on your Beagle will be completely overwritten and lost. So be very careful in using a flasher micro-SD. Remember, the copy operation will only occur when you boot from a micro-SD flasher. It is possible to insert a flasher micro-SD into a running system so that it may be read or re-written like any other card.
But be certain to remove it immediately after you're done. Otherwise the next time you reboot the Beagle the flashing operation will begin if the card is still a flasher. Even we make this mistake occasionally and it is very annoying to lose all your work that is stored on the Beagle's on-board filesystem. An image file from the Internet must be downloaded and copied to a micro-SD card to turn it into a flasher.
Proceed as follows. Obtain a micro-SD card at least 8 GB in size. It is best not to use the one delivered with your Kiwi as that should be saved as an emergency backup unless it doesn't work and you're repairing it. You may have to download one or more programs e. Some of these programs can overwrite your PCs hard drive if the wrong device for the SD card is specified. So follow the instructions very carefully.
Login to the Beagle from another computer. Login as user "root". Instead, login as user "debian" and use the command "sudo su" to get root privileges. Script will download large KiwiSDR software distribution file from kiwisdr. Make sure they match so you know download is good. Script writes micro-SD card. This takes about 40 minutes. Depends on size and type of micro-SD card.
If you want the Beagle you are now using to be re-flashed with the KiwiSDR software then hit return key when asked to reboot. Remember: all previous Beagle software will be erased. Otherwise hit control-C to stop script. After you have an SD card with the flasher image insert it into the Beagle and power-up.
When booted from the SD card the LEDs will display a "back-and-forth" pattern as the image is copied to the Beagle on-board filesystem. The Beagle will power off when done all LEDs will go dark. Takes about 5 minutes for a Class SD card. When the KiwiSDR server is first run it will automatically update itself to the latest version by downloading from Github since the download image is always older than the most current version.
If you are doing a Debian 8 to Debian 10 upgrade then return to the Kiwi Forum for instructions on completing the upgrade. Use the micro-SD delivered with your Beagle or follow the various guides on the Internet showing how to upgrade your Beagle to Debian first.
Viewing the source code change log To see the comments from recent changes to the source code look at the Github change log. If any comment there is followed by an ellipsis box The power management chip of the BBG will not allow more than mA to flow on this connection. This means they will fit loosely in the Kiwi jack and may cause unexpected power downs as the Kiwi or cable are moved around. A precision supply will react much more quickly to over-current situations than an ordinary linear supply using a big output capacitor to ride through peak current demand.
A bench supply will instantly drop the output voltage the moment the current limit is reached. We've had several users observe bizarre behavior using precision supplies random Beagle shutdown, SD card write failures, repeatable server "freeze" during certain operations, etc. Under-voltage due to cable voltage drop The power management controller chip PMIC on the Beagle will refuse to power up the Beagle and Kiwi if the 5V input is below about 4.
Worse, if a momentary increase in peak current draw causes the input to drop below 4. This problem has been seen by several customers and even ourselves. It is caused by cables with insufficient wire gauge. See this forum post. This is because almost all of these small line-powered units are switch-mode power supplies SMPS with inadequate filtering.
The switching frequencies are typically in the 20 - kHz range with harmonics sometimes extending well into the shortwave bands. Worse, the oscillators are almost always unregulated resulting in unstable carriers many kHz wide. Their emissions might meet regulatory requirements but that doesn't stop them from wrecking havoc when used to directly power an SDR.
Transformer-based, regulated linear supplies are now more difficult to find. Particularly the wall-mount plug-pack type. This is partly due to new energy conservation laws requiring higher standby-mode efficiency from power supplies. It's pretty easy to make an SMPS draw minimal current when plugged-in but not in use. But it's difficult for a transformer-based supply due to the unloaded losses present in the transformer even when there is no connection. There is also the issue of poor conversion efficiency compared to SMPS.
We have tested two classes of linear supplies with good results: Audiophile power supplies Ebay Cable with 2. And for this purpose there are transformer-based, 5V linear supplies available on Ebay and AliExpress. We have evaluated one of these units and it worked great. Jan update: We've had a couple reports of the supplies from Ebay above showing up DOA or unable to meet the Kiwi current requirement such that the Kiwi doesn't power up even though the supply puts out 5V under no-load conditions.
The supplies were replaced by the seller, but caveat emptor.. Bel Power Solutions , 5V 3A solder lugs, - VAC strapable solder lugs This one is a little expensive but the transformer can be strapped for or volts. It's an open-frame supply with all connections via solder lugs so you must add your own cables. Consider cutting off the cable with a 2. For a line cord with a region-specific plug you can scavenge from old equipment or sacrifice a cheap extension cord i.
Please add an inline fuse to your line cable we did! And insulate all line-voltage connections, particularly at the transformer. When dealing with line voltages please be careful, go slow, don't work alone and ask for help if you need it. We don't want any fatalities or injuries as a result of advice given here. If you absolutely must use an SMPS then consider this one which we have found to be fairly quiet. Mean Well, 5V 3A, 2. As with noise reduction, experimentation with antennas is usually an incremental process.
If you are new to antenna building then start with a simple random wire. You will hear something. Then you can try a more complex antenna and see how much improvement there is. There are many commercial sources for E-field whip, probe and H-field loop active antennas. There are a number of active antennas, both kits and pre-built, on Ebay.
It is also not that difficult to construct your own. DX label editing This section describes a panel accessible from an ordinary user connection that a Kiwi admin can use to make label changes. For an interface that's more suitable to making a large number of changes and has other features see the admin page DX tab.
The DX labels in the area above the frequency scale are editable by anyone who has admin privileges. Shift-clicking on a label will bring up a panel with the parameters you can edit. The admin password will be requested first if necessary.
The Modify, Add and Delete buttons at the bottom make the changes. Using Add is how you can duplicate, starting with the information from an existing label, without changing the original label itself. Note: Changes from this panel cannot be made when any admin page connection is open due to database locking issues. If you shift-click in a blank spot of the label area i. The type is set to the first entry in the Type menu but the other fields are left blank for you to edit. By default the first type is named active and makes the label cyan-colored.
But you may have changed then names and colors of the Type menu entries via the admin page, DX tab. This shortcut is meant to quickly change the type value without opening the full editing panel. This is useful for example with the two default Type menu entries of active cyan and watch-list red.
The Kiwi ships with a number of existing labels in red of type watch-list just to give you an idea of how you might customize your Kiwi's labels. When a signal is heard you can use the shortcut to switch the label to active. But you are free to define the labels and types however you wish. If you are a Kiwi admin it is possible to edit the DX labels on a mobile device. Touch the label to select it.
Then two-finger tap in the waterfall to show the popup menu. Tap the edit last selected dx label menu entry. Details of fields in the panel: Passband Enter a passband specification to override the default for the demod mode selected. You would do this to customize a label for a particular signal characteristic, e. The passband notation used is simplified compared to other places such as in the frequency entry field.
Use a single number to specify a symmetrical passband width for modes like AM, IQ etc. Use two numbers separated by a space or comma to specify an unsymmetrical passband "lo", "hi" freq for carrier offset modes like sideband or CW. Numbers are in Hz or can be kHz using the suffix "k" i.
A USB passband example is "-3k, ". There is one important exception. The last menu entry masked is used to create a blocked frequency or frequency range where no reception is possible i. The passband area, either the default for the selected mode or the custom passband field, defines the masked frequency boundaries.
To define a large masked band area see this Kiwi forum post. Offset The offset field is used specifically for NDB band labels to create an offset in the displayed label position and the nominal carrier frequency. But "" Hz entered in the Offset field so the vertical line of the label appears on When the label is moused-over a small yellow triangle in the label area shows the kHz carrier point. This mechanism is meant to help distinguish NDB carrier and ident frequencies when there are many overlapping label definitions -- typical for NDB DX'ers who add many labels to their Kiwis.
Ident The text inside the label is set from the ident field. From version v1. Notes The notes field text appears in a popup tooltip when the label is moused-over. Extension Normally when a label is clicked only the frequency, passband and mode is changed and possibly masking. With the "extension" field it is possible to start a Kiwi extension as well. Labels that have an extension specified turn magenta when moused-over as opposed to the usual yellow.
The extension is opened when the label is clicked a shift-click opens that label in the edit panel as usual. Schedule Optional schedule information can be entered specifying when the label signal might be heard active. A label outside of its schedule period inactive is displayed in a lighter color with a dashed border see the "FSK" label in the image above.
Otherwise labels filtered by schedule are not visible at all to limit screen clutter. This feature is similar to the EiBi database which also contains schedule information and a filtering checkbox. The default is active all the time i. There are a few considerations with this scheme. Example: Time begin time end , three hours later.
If you wanted the label to only be active one day a week, on Wednesday, only leave the "W" DOW button selected. The software correctly compensates for the fact that the end time is on UTC Thursday. If you also specified the Thursday DOW the label would be active two days per week Wed and Thu , perhaps not what you want.
Use a smaller antenna or an inline attenuator if necessary. An attenuator can be as simple as a low-value potentiometer. Sure, the pot won't maintain a 50 ohm impedance like a proper Pi-network, but this is not critical. Adjust the pot until the overall waterfall noise floor drops to normal under high-signal conditions roughly to dBFS shown on the spectrum display when fully zoomed in on a quiet frequency. Or until the "OV" indicator no longer shows. One user cleverly notes that since the SMA and terminal block inputs are in parallel if you are connecting the antenna via the SMA connector you can place a swamping resistor or pot across the terminal block.
Martin, G8JNJ, has an excellent article on constructing simple series-tuned shunt filters to attenuate specific problem frequencies. Note the -3 dB point is 2. One user has found some very inexpensive inline SMA attenuators on Ebay. At those prices you can afford to buy a range of values and connect them in series to get the optimum attenuation.
First off, I want to state that the purpose of writing this post is to help myself learn how to use Golden Tickets on assessments. If you want to see some great write-ups about Golden ticket generation, be sure to look at these:. Those posts are significantly more authoritative on the subject than mine, I just wanted to write this out so I can reference this on assessments.
Golden tickets can offer an extremely powerful to escalate privileges for an attacker on a network, or obtain access to resources which are only available to a select group. Golden Tickets can be generated two different ways.
This post will show how to use both options to generate your ticket. At this point, I am going to assume that you have a meterpreter session, as SYSTEM, on the domain controller for the domain you are targeting. Within your session, you want to load the kiwi extension by typing:. Now that the kiwi extension is loaded, when you type help, you should see the additional commands that are available for you.
To get this information, you can just interact with the meterpreter session you already have active. Drop into a shell, and run:. The domain SID starts at the S-1… and goes to … Copy and paste that information into a text file. Next up, grab the domain name. One way I like to do this is just running:. So, this info should also be saved off to a text file.
The last big hurdle that you will need is the nt hash from the krbtgt account. Since you should be on the DC, perform a hashdump and obtain the krbtgt hash. Now that we have all of the required information, we can generate a golden ticket! At this time, go ahead and determine the user account you are wanting to impersonate, or, you can actually use an account that is nonexistent.
In our case, the command looks like this:. The setting is only effective if the container configuraiton provides an initial tag value. This is useful if an image build should take and validate repository and package signatures during build time. Update a previously prepare image root tree. The update command refreshes the contents of the root directory with potentially new versions of the packages according to the repository setup of the image XML description.
In addition the update command also allows to add or remove packages from the image root tree. The result image files are created in the specified target-dir. Allow to use an existing root directory from an earlier build attempt. Use with caution this could cause an inconsistent root tree if the existing contents does not fit to the former image type setup.
Path to the XML description. Open Buildservice repository. Internal Open Buildservice repository. The source data is translated into an http url pointing to download. Local iso file. Create an image from a previously prepared image root directory.
The kiwi create call is usually issued after a kiwi prepare command and builds the requested image type in the specified target directory. Path to the image root directory. This directory is usually created by the kiwi prepare command. In create step this option only affects the boot image. For disk based images, allow to resize the image to a new disk geometry.
The additional space is free and not in use by the image. Therefore the resize operation is useful for oem image builds most of the time. New size of the image. Example: 20g. Provides information about the specified image description. If no specific info option is provided the command just lists basic information about the image which could also be directly obtained by reading the image XML description file. Specifying an extension option like resolve-package-list will cause a dependency resolver to run over the list of packages and thus provides more detailed information about the image description.
The description must be a directory containing a kiwi XML description and optional metadata files. Using that option is usually done with a sequence of —add-repo options otherwise there are no repositories available for the processing the requested image information which could lead to an error. Solve package dependencies and return a list of all packages including their attributes e. Print image description in XML format. From there the result gets validated using the RelaxNG schema and the schematron rules.
This result data will then be displayed. The typical use case for this command is to turn an old image description to the latest schema. Behaves the same like --print-xml except that after validation the result data will be transformed into the YAML format and displayed.
Due to this processing the command can be used for different operations:. Conversion of a given image description from or into different formats. The module is not a hard requirement and loaded on demand. If not available and a request to convert into a format different from XML is made an exception will be thrown. The suggested solutions are considered best practice but are just one out of other possible solution candidates. For building images a host system is required that runs the build process.
Tools to create the image are used from that host and this creates an indirect dependency to the target image. For example; Building an Ubuntu image requires the apt and dpkg tools and metadata to be available and functional on the host to build an Ubuntu image. There are many more of those host vs. The most compatible environment is provided if the build host is of the same distribution than the target image.
Such an environment can be found in:. However for building images we rely on core tools which are not under our control. Also several design aspects of distributions like secure boot and working with upstream projects are different and not influenced by us. There are many side effects that can be annoying especially if the build host is not of the same distribution vendor than the image target. With regards to the information in Section 5. Cross arch building would require any core tool that is used to build an image to be cross arch capable.
To patch e. Thus we recommend to provide native systems for the target architecture and build there. One possible alternative is to use the kiwi boxed plugin as mentioned above together with a box created for the desired architecture. However keep in mind the performance problematic when running a VM of a different architecture.
The majority of the image builds are based on the x86 architecture. This page provides further information how to solve image build problems caused by selinux security policies. The rules for this protection are provided in security policies. There are several applications enforcing these security settings, e. In this troubleshooting chapter the focus is set on selinux. Protecting files, process groups, kernel filesystems, device nodes and more from unauthorized access and restrict it to a certain set of applications is a nice concept.
However, if taken serious no other application except the ones configured in the security policy will function properly. When building an appliance, the appliance builder has to have access to a wide range of services. It must be able to create a new package database elsewhere in the system. It must be able to create, read and write device nodes, create filesystems, partitions, bootloader configurations etc etc.
The list is very long and no security policy could cover this in a way that it would not be open to everything which in the end leads to a pointless exercise and no security at all. This means for users who would like to keep the security settings of the system enforced and unchanged, the only way to allow KIWI NG to do its job is to run it through boxbuild as explained in Section 6. This action disables selinux temporary. To disable selinux permanently perform the following steps:.
Due to the complexity of these systems this article just mentions the most common issue people run into when building images on systems protected through selinux. This page provides further information how to solve image boot problems if the filesystem tool chain on the image build host is incompatible with the image target distribution. When KIWI NG builds an image which requests the creation of a filesystem, the required filesystem creation tool, for example mkfs.
It is expected that the generated filesystem is compatible with the image target distribution. This expectation is not always correct and depends on the compatibility of the filesystem default settings between build host and image target. We know about the following settings that causes an incompatible filesystem which will not be able to be used on boot:. Check the XFS metadata setup on the build host and make sure the settings are compatible with the target image.
At best the build host distribution is of the same major Linux version than the image target. Further details can be found in Section 6. Users building images with KIWI NG face problems if they want to build an image matching one of the following criteria:. This document describes how to perform the build process in a self contained environment using fast booting virtual machines to address the issues listed above.
For details see Section 2. We call the VM images boxes and they contain kiwi itself as well as all other components needed to build appliances. Those boxes are hosted in the Open Build Service and are publicly available at the Subprojects tab in the: Virtualization:Appliances:SelfContained project.
The boxbuild command knows where to fetch the box and also cares for an update of the box when it has changed. Building an image with the boxbuild command is similar to building with the build command. The plugin validates the given command call with the capabilities of the build command. Thus one part of the boxbuild command is exactly the same as with the build command. The separation between boxbuild and build options is done using the -- separator like shown in the following example:.
The provided --description and --target-dir options are setup as shared folders between the host and the box. No other data will be shared with the host. As mentioned above, the boxbuild call shares the two host directories provided in --description and --target-dir with the box. To do this the following sharing backends are supported:. For more information see 9pfs.
Using this sharing backend does not require any setup procedure from the user and is also the default for boxbuild. In boxbuild this is used to mount directories from the host into the box. Because this runs through an SSH connection the host must allow connections from the box.
The public key mentioned here is associated with an SSH key pair we provide in the pre-built box images. If the sshfs backend is used without the host trusting the box, the boxbuild call will become interactive at the time of the sshfs mount. In this case the user might be asked for a passphrase or depending on the host sshd setup the request will be declined and the boxbuild fails. QEMU virtio-fs shared file system daemon.
Share a host directory tree with a box through a virtio-fs device. For more information see virtiofs. Using this sharing backend does not require any setup procedure from the user. Feedback welcome. When building images exposes one of the following requirements the stackbuild plugin provides an opportunity to address it:. Preserve the image rootfs for a later rebuild without requiring the original software repositories.
First the plugin comes with a command called stash which allows to store a kiwi built root tree as an OCI container. Once the container got created it can be managed using the preferred container toolchain. The plugin code itself uses podman to work with containers. As a next step and with the root tree as a container the plugin offers the opportunity to build images based on one ore more containers.
Consequently the other command provided is named stackbuild. The stash and stackbuild commands can be used independently from each other. If there is already a registry with containers that should be used to build images from, stackbuild can directly consume them.
This concept leads to a number of use cases and a few of them were picked and put into the abstract of this article. For the purpose of documenting the functionality of the plugin only a part of the possibilities are taken into account as follows:. From there a user can push it to any registry of choice. The following example creates a stash of a Tumbleweed build and illustrates how to register it in a foreign container registry:. If the stash command is called multiple times with the same container-name this leads to a new layer in the container for each call.
To inspect the number of layers added to the container the following command can be used:. To list all stashes created by the stash command the following command can be used. If multiple containers are given the stackbuild command stacks them together in the order as they were provided. When using multiple containers the result stack root tree is created from a sequence of rsync commands into the same target directory.
The stackbuild plugin does this with any container content given and does not check, validate or guarantee that the selection of containers are actually stackable or leads to an usable root tree. To simply rebuild the image from the stash created in Create a stash call stackbuild as follows:. As all rootfs data is already in the stash, the command will not need external resources to rebuild the image.
Another use case for the stackbuild plugin is the transformation of container images into another image type that is supported by KIWI NG. The following example demonstrates how an existing container image from the openSUSE registry can be turned into a virtual machine image.
When moving a container into a virtual machine image the following aspects has to be taken into account:. For a VM image the mentioned aspects are mandatory. To build the virtual machine image from the current hosted Leap For example, to build a virtual disk image, several tools needs to be available on the host that builds the image.
This includes tools for partition table setup or tools to create filesystems. The number of required components depends on the selected image type and the features used with the image. Therefore a concept to help with the host requirements exists and is named kiwi-systemdeps. The kiwi-systemdeps concept consists out of a collection of sub-packages provided with the python-kiwi main package. Each individual package requires a number of tools and subsystem packages which belongs to the package category.
There are the following systemdeps packages:. Installs the package managers which are supported by the target distribution as well as the tar archiving tool. Supports building docker and appx image types. Supports building iso image types and oem install media.
Depends on the -core , -filesystems and -bootloaders kiwi-systemdeps packages. Supports building bootable oem and iso image types. Installs all bootloader tools depending on the host architecture to allow setup and install of the bootloader. The pulled in components are required for any image that is able to boot through some BIOS or firmware.
The iso type is an exception which might not require the -bootloaders systemdeps. Supports building fs-type , oem , pxe , kis and live iso image types. The pulled in components are needed for any image type that needs to create a filesystem. This excludes the archive based image types like docker , appx or tbz. The package also installs tools one level below the actual filesystem creation toolkit.
Installs all tools to create virtual disks. Depends on the -filesystems and -bootloaders kiwi-systemdeps packages. Installs the jing tool to validate the image description. In addition, the anymarkup Python module is installed if the the option to install recommended packages is set. Depending on the image type the kiwi-systemdeps packages can help to setup the host system quickly for the task to build an image. In case the host should support everything there is also the main kiwi-systemdeps package which has a dependency on all other existing systemdeps packages.
Pulling in all kiwi-systemdeps packages can result in quite some packages to become installed on the host. This is because the required packages itself comes with a number of dependencies like java for jing as one example. A crucial part of each appliance is the repository selection. KIWI NG allows the end user to completely customize the selection of repositories and packages via the repository element. KIWI NG installs packages into your appliance from the repositories defined in the image description.
A repository is added to the description via the repository element, which is a child of the top-level image element:. The translated http URL will also be included in the final appliance. The repository element accepts one source child element, which contains the URL to the repository in an appropriate format and the following optional attributes:.
Defaults to false. If the same package is available in more than one repository, then the one with the highest priority is used. As the options used do not follow any standard and are not compatible between package managers and distributions, the only generic way to handle this is through a script hook which is invoked with the repo file as parameter for each file created by KIWI NG.
If the script is provided as relative path it will be searched in the image description directory. The actual location of a repository is specified in the source child element of repository via its only attribute path. This allows you to configure the repositories of your image from OBS itself and not having to modify the image description.
On top of the Section 7. KIWI NG allows the end user to completely customize the selection of packages via the packages element. The packages element provides a collection of different child elements that instruct KIWI NG when and how to perform package installation or removal. Each packages element acts as a group, whose behavior can be configured via the following attributes:. And packages which belong to a build type are only installed when that specific build type is currently processed by KIWI NG.
The following sections describes the different child elements of a packages group. The package element represents a single package to be installed or removed , whose name is specified via the mandatory name attribute:. Note, that the value that you pass via the name attribute is passed directly to the used package manager.
Thus, if the package manager supports other means how packages can be specified, you may pass them in this context too. For example, RPM based package managers like dnf or zypper can install packages via their Provides:. This can be used to add a package that provides a certain capability e.
Whether this works depends on the package manager and on the environment that is being used. Therefore, relying on Provides is not recommended. Packages can also be included only on specific host architectures via the arch attribute. KIWI NG compares the arch attributes value with the host architecture that builds the image according to the output of uname -m.
KIWI NG supports the inclusion of ordinary tar archives via the archive element, whose name attribute specifies the filename of the archive KIWI NG looks for the archive in the image description folder. When multiple archive elements are specified then they will be applied in a top to bottom order.
If a file is already present in the image, then the file from the archive will overwrite it same as with the image overlay. Both types of removals take place after config. Use this feature with caution as it can easily cause the removal of sensitive tools leading to failures in later build stages. Consider the following example where we wish to compile a custom program in config.
The tools meson , clang and ninja are then available during the Section 7. For containers one can often remove the package shadow it is required to setup new user accounts or any left over partitioning tools parted or fdisk. All networking tools can be safely uninstalled in images for embedded devices without a network connection. These can be added via the product and namedCollection child elements, which both take the mandatory name attribute and the optional arch attribute.
A named pattern, specified with the namedCollection element is a representation of a predefined list of packages. Specifying a pattern will install all packages listed in the named pattern. The optional patternType attribute on the packages element allows you to control the installation of dependent packages.
You may assign one of the following values to the patternType attribute:. Packages can be explicitly marked to be ignored for installation inside a packages collection. Optionally one can also specify the architecture via the arch similarly to The package element. The packages will still get deleted. A profile is a namespace for additional settings that can be applied by KIWI NG on top of the default settings or other profiles , thereby allowing to build multiple appliances with the same build type but with different configurations.
The use of profiles is advisable to distinguish image builds of the same type but with different settings. In the following example, two virtual machine images of the oem type are configured: one for QEMU using the qcow2 format and one for VMWare using the vmdk format.
Each profile is declared via the element profile , which itself must be a child of profiles and must contain the name and description attributes. The description is only present for documentation purposes, name on the other hand is used to instruct KIWI NG which profile to build via the command line. Additionally, one can provide the boolean attribute import , which defines whether this profile should be used by default when KIWI NG is invoked via the command line.
A profile inherits the default settings which do not belong to any profile. It applies only to elements that contain the profile in their profiles attribute. The attribute profiles expects a comma separated list of profiles for which the settings of this element apply. Profiles can furthermore inherit settings from another profile via the requires sub-element:. For further details on the usage of profiles see Section User accounts can be added or modified via the users element, which supports a list of multiple user child elements:.
Each user element represents a specific user that is added or modified. The following attributes are mandatory:. Plain passwords are discouraged, as everyone with access to the image description would know the password. It is recommended to generate a hash of your password using openssl as follows:. This chapter describes the purpose of the user defined scripts config. KIWI NG supports the following optional scripts that it runs in a root environment chroot containing your new appliance:.
The script can be used to configure the package manager with additional settings that should apply in the following chroot based installation step which completes the installation. The script is not dedicated to this use and can also be used for other tasks. It is usually used to apply a permanent and final change of data in the root tree, such as modifying a package provided config file. It runs in the same image root tree that has been created by the prepare step but is invoked any time an image should be created from that root tree.
It is usually used to apply image type specific changes to the root tree such as a modification to a config file that should be done when building a live iso but not when building a virtual disk image. This is useful for example to delete components from the system which were needed before or cannot be modified afterwards when syncing into a read-only filesystem. The chroot environment for this script call is the virtual disk itself and not the root tree as with config.
The script disk. When creating a custom script it usually takes some iterations of try and testing until a final stable state is reached. At call time of the script a screen session executes and you get access to the break in shell. From this environment the needed script code can be implemented.
Apart from providing a full featured terminal throughout the execution of the script code, there is also the advantage to have control on the session during the process of the image creation. Listing the active sessions for script execution can be done as follows:. As shown above the screen session s to execute script code provides extended control which could also be considered a security risk. For production processes all scripts should run in their native way and should not require a terminal to operate correctly!
The following template shows how to import this information in your script:. Keep in mind that there is only one unpacked root tree the script operates in. This means that all changes are permanent and will not be automatically restored! Remove libraries which are not directly linked against applications in the bin directories. Prints the path of the first found systemd unit or mount with name passed as the first parameter. Activate or deactivate a service via systemctl.
The function requires the service name and the value on or off as parameters. Calls baseInsertService and exists only for compatibility reasons. Calls baseRemoveService and exists only for compatibility reasons. Configures the image to work as a vagrant box by performing the following changes:. Helper function to print the supplied message if the variable DEBUG is set to 1 it is off by default. The value of the compressed attribute set in the type element in config.
A comma separated list of the driver entries as listed in the drivers section of the config. The image type as extracted from the type element in config. As an example, in SLE12 distribution the locale configuration is already possible by using the systemd toolchain, however this approach overlaps with SUSE specific managers such as YaST.
In any case the configuration is still possible in KIWI by using any distribution specific way to configure the locale setting inside the config. Those UUIDs are intended to be unique and set only once in each deployment.
Unless the file already contains a valid machine ID, systemd will generate one and write it into the file, creating it if necessary. See the machine-id man page for more details. This only applies to images based on a dracut initrd, it does not apply for container images. The rw option can be added to the kernel commandline to force the initial mount to be read-write.
However on older systems those might be two different files. This is the case for SLE based images. If you are targeting these older operating systems, it is recommended to add the symlink creation into config. KIWI NG supports an additional configuration file for runtime specific settings that do not belong into the image description but which are persistent and would be unsuitable for command line parameters.
If no config file is provided at the commandline, KIWI NG searches for the runtime configuration file in the following locations:. The file contains all settings as comments including a short description of each setting. Most Linux systems use a special boot image to control the system boot process after the system firmware, BIOS or UEFI, hands control of the hardware to the operating system. This boot image is called the initrd. It uses a tool called dracut to create this initrd.
Dracut generated initrd archives can be extended by custom modules to add functionality which is not natively provided by dracut itself. Serves as an image installer. This module is required if one of the attributes installiso , installstick or installpxe is set to true in the image type definition. Serves to boot the system into the installed image after installation is completed.
This module is required if the iso image type is selected. Allows to boot disk images configured with the attribute overlayroot set to true. Such a disk has its root partition compressed and readonly and boots up using overlayfs for the root filesystem using an extra partition on the same disk for persistent data. Resizes an OEM disk image after installation onto the target disk to meet the size constraints configured in the oemconfig section of the image description. Provides functions of general use and serves as a library usable by other dracut modules.
As the name implies, its main purpose is to function as library for the above mentioned kiwi dracut modules. Apart from the standard dracut based creation of the boot image, KIWI NG supports the use of custom boot images for the image types oem and pxe.
The use of a custom boot image is activated by setting the following attribute in the image description:. Along with this setting it is now mandatory to provide a reference to a boot image description in the boot attribute like in the following example:. The custom boot image descriptions allows a user to completely customize what and how the initrd behaves by its own implementation.
This concept is mostly used in PXE environments which are usually highly customized and requires a specific boot and deployment workflow. The dracut initrd system uses systemd to implement a predefined workflow of services which are documented in the bootup man page at:.
The module files can be either provided as a package or as part of the overlay directory in your image description. The following example demonstrates how to include a custom hook script right before the system rootfs gets mounted. At the time KIWI NG calls dracut the 90my-module will be taken into account and is installed into the generated initrd. At boot time systemd calls the scripts as part of the dracut-pre-mount. The dracut system offers a lot more possibilities to customize the initrd than shown in the example above.
For more information, visit the dracut project page. The following list documents the available kernel boot parameters for this modules:. Tells an OEM installation image to lookup the system image on a remote location specified in rd.
Tells an OEM installation image to pass an additional boot parameters to the kernel used to boot the installed image. This can be used e. Note, that options starting with rd. Configures the maximum disk size an unattended OEM installation should consider for image deployment. With rd. Tells a live ISO image the size for the tmpfs filesystem that is used for the overlayfs mount process. If the write area of the overlayfs mount uses this tmpfs, any new data written during the runtime of the system will fillup this space.
Tells a live ISO image which filesystem should be used to store data on the persistent write partition. When using tools like live-grub-stick the live ISO will be copied as a file on the target device and a GRUB loopback setup is created there to boot the live system from file. In such a case the persistent write setup, which usually creates an extra write partition on the target, will fail in almost all cases because the target has no free and unpartitioned space available.
The cow file will be created in the same directory the live iso image file was read from by grub and takes the configured size or the default size of MB. Defaults to LiveOS. Defaults to squashfs. If the boot process encounters a fatal error, the default behavior is to stop the boot process without any possibility to interact with the system. This should be set at the Kernel command line. With those parameters activated, the system will enter a limited shell environment in case of a fatal error during boot.
The shell contains a basic set of commands and allows for a closer look to:. KIWI NG builds so-called system images a fully installed and optionally configured system in a single file of a Linux distribution in two steps for further details, see Image Building Process :. Prepare operation : generate an unpacked image tree of your image. The unpacked tree is a directory containing the future file system of your image, generated from your image description. Create operation : the unpacked tree generated in step 1 is packaged into the format required for the final usage e.
KIWI NG executes these steps using the following components, which it expects to find in the description directory :. The config. The filename config. If present, custom configuration shell scripts run at different stages of the build process.
They can be used to fine tune the image in ways that are not possible via the settings provided in config. The overlay tree is a folder called root or a tarball called root. The copying is executed after all the packages included in config. Any already present files are overwritten. If present, the archive will be unpacked as user data on the ISO image. For example, this is used to add license files or user documentation. KIWI NG creates images in a two step process: The first step, the prepare operation, generates a so-called unpacked image tree directory using the information provided in the config.
The second step, the create operation, creates the packed image or image in the specified format based on the unpacked image tree and the information provided in the config. This directory will be the installation target for software packages to be installed during the image creation process.
For the package installation, KIWI NG relies on the package manager specified in the packagemanager element in config. By default KIWI NG aborts with an error if the target root tree already exists to avoid accidental deletion of an existing unpacked image. The option --allow-existing-root can be used to work based on an existing root tree.
First, KIWI NG configures the package manager to use the repositories specified in the configuration file, via the command line, or both. After the repository setup, the packages specified in the bootstrap section of the image description are installed in a temporary directory external to the target root tree. This establishes the initial environment to support the completion of the process in a chroot setting. The essential bootstrap packages are usually filesystem and glibc-locale to specify as part of the bootstrap.
The dependency chain of these two packages is usually sufficient to populate the bootstrap environment with all required software to support the installation of packages into the new root tree. KIWI NG uses the package manager as installed in the bootstrap phase and installs all other packages as configured. The installation of software packages through the selected package manager may install unwanted packages.
Removing these packages can be accomplished by marking them for deletion in the image description, see Section 7. Next, KIWI NG applies all files and directories present in the overlay directory named root or in the compressed overlay root. Files already present in the target root directory are overwritten. This allows you to overwrite any file that was installed by one of the packages during the installation phase. All archives specified in the archive element of the config.
Files and directories are extracted relative to the top level of the new root tree. As with the overlay tree, it is possible to overwrite files already existing in the target root tree. Execute the user-defined script config. At the end of the preparation stage the script config.
It is run in the top level directory of the target root tree. For more details about custom scripts see Section 7. The unpacked image tree is now finished to be converted into the final image in the create step. It is possible to make manual modifications to the unpacked tree before it is converted into the final image. Since the unpacked image tree is just a directory, it can be modified using the standard tools.
Therfore to perform manual modifications, proceed as follows:. Do not make any changes to the system, since they are lost when re-running the prepare step again. Additionally, you may introduce errors that occur during the create step which are difficult to track. The recommended way to apply changes to the unpacked image directory is to change the configuration and re-run the prepare step.
KIWI NG creates the final image during the create step : it converts the unpacked root tree into one or multiple output files appropriate for the respective build type. It is possible to create multiple images from the same unpacked root tree, for example, a self installing OEM image and a virtual machine image from the same image description.
The only prerequisite is that both image types are specified in config. Execute the User-defined Script images. At the beginning of the image creation process the script named images. The image definition starts with an image tag and requires the schema format at version 7. The attribute name specifies the name of the image which is also used for the filenames created by KIWI. Allows setup of the boot menu title for the selected boot loader. So you can have suse-SLED-foo as the image name but a different name as the boot display name.
This will replace the include statement with the contents of description. The validation of the result happens after the inclusion of all include references. Only the inner elements of the root node will be included. The processing of XML data via XSLT always requires a root node which is the reason why this is required to be specified for include files as well.
Nesting of include statements in other include files is not supported. This will lead to unresolved include statements in the final document and will cause the runtime checker to complain about it. Other markup formats are not supported as include reference. The mandatory description section contains information about the creator of this image description.
The attribute type could be either of the value system which indicates this is a system image description or at value boot for custom kiwi boot image descriptions. The mandatory preferences section contains information about the supported image type s , the used package manager, the version of this image, and further optional elements.
The preferences section can be configured to apply only for a certain architecture. In this case specify the arch attribute with a value as it is reported by uname -m. The mandatory image version must be a three-part version number of the format: Major. In case of changes to the image description the following rules should apply:.
For smaller image modifications that do not add or remove any new packages, only the release number is incremented. The XML description file config. For image changes that involve the addition or removal of packages the minor number is incremented and the release number is reset.
For image changes that changes the behavior or geometry of the image file the major number is incremented. The mandatory packagemanager element specifies which package manager should be used to handle software packages. The packagemanager setup is connected to the distribution used to build the image.
The following table shows which package manager is connected to which distributor:. In general the specification of one preferences section is sufficient. In combination with the above the preferences element supports the following optional elements:.
Specifies whether files marked as documentation should be skipped during installation. Specifies the name of the console keymap to use. Specifies the time zone. Please note only UTF-8 locales are supported here which also means that the encoding must not be part of the locale information.
Specifies the name of the bootloader theme to use if that used bootloader has theme support. Along with the version and the packagemanager at least one image type element must be specified to indicate which image type should be build. Specifies the distribution global release version as consumed by package managers. Currently the release version is not set or set to 0 for package managers which requires a value to operate.
With the optional release-version section, users have an opportunity to specify a custom value which is passed along the package manager to define the distribution release. The release version information is currently used in dnf and microdnf package managers only. It might happen that it gets applied to the other package manager backends as well. This will happen on demand though. At least one type element must be configured. It is possible to specify multiple type elements in a preferences block.
To set a given type description as the default image use the boolean attribute primary and set its value to true:. The image type to be created is determined by the value of the image attribute. The following list describes the supported types and possible values of the image attribute:. A simple tar archive image. The tbz type packs the contents of the image root tree into a xz compressed tarball.
A filesystem image. The image root tree data is packed into a filesystem image of the given type. An image of that type can be loop mounted and accessed according to the capabiities of the selected filesystem. A useful pocket system for testing and demo and debugging purposes.
An image representing an expandable system disk. This means after deployment the system can resize itself to the new disk geometry. An archive image suitable for the docker container engine. The image can be loaded via the docker load command and works within the scope of the container engine.
The container should be able to run with any oci compliant container engine. An archive image suitable for the Windows Subsystem For Linux container engine. An optional root filesystem image associated with a kernel and initrd. The use case for this component image type is highly customizable. Many different deployment strategies are possible. For completion of a type description, there could be several other optional attributes and child elements.
The type element supports a plethora of optional attributes, some of these are only relevant for certain build types and will be covered in extra chapters that describes the individual image types more detailed. Certain attributes are however useful for nearly all build types and will be covered next:. Boolean parameter notifying KIWI NG whether an extra boot partition should be used or not the default depends on the current layout.
For images with a separate boot partition this attribute specifies the size in MB. If not set the boot partition size is set to MB. For images with an EFI firmware specifies the partition table type to use.
If not set defaults to the GPT partition table type. For oem disk images, specifies to make use of logical partitions inside of an extended one. If set to true and if the msdos table type is active, this will cause the fourth partition to be an extended partition and all following partitions will be placed as logical partitions inside of that extended partition. This setting is useful if more than 4 primary partitions needs to be created in an msdos table.
Boolean parameter to activate filesystem quotas if the filesystem is btrfs. By default quotas are inactive. The snapshot layout is compatible with snapper. By default snapshots are turned off. By default the root filesystem snapshot is writable. For use with the apt packagemanager only. The tarball will be unpacked and used as the bootstrap rootfs to begin with. This allows for an alternative bootstrap method preventing the use of debootstrap. For further details see Section Specifies whether the image output file should be compressed or not.
This option is only used for filesystem only images or for the pxe or cpio types. Specifies the path to a script which is called right before the bootloader is installed. The script runs relative to the directory which contains the image structure. Specifies the path to a script which is called right after the bootloader is installed. Specifies the boot firmware of the appliance, supported options are: bios , ec2 , efi , uefi , ofw and opal.
This attribute is used to differentiate the image according to the firmware which boots up the system. It mostly impacts the disk layout and the partition table type. Note that forcing a MBR partition table incurs limitations with respect to the number of available partitions and their sizes.
Specifies the filesystem options used to create the filesystem. The default options are filesystem specific and are provided along with the package that provides the filesystem utility. Other filesystems provides this differently and documents information about options and their defaults in the respective manual page, e.
The options provided as a string are passed to the command that creates the filesystem without any further validation by KIWI NG. For example, to turn off the journal on creation of an ext4 filesystem the following option would be required:.
Additional kernel parameters passed to the kernel by the bootloader. A clone partition is content wise an exact byte for byte copy of the origin root partition. However, to avoid conflicts at boot time the UUID of any cloned partition will be made unique. In the sequence of partitions, the clone s will always be created first followed by the partition considered the origin. The origin partition is the one that will be referenced and used by the system.
Also see Section Supplying a value will trigger the encryption of the partition serving the root filesystem using the LUKS extension. When using a key file it is in the responsibility of the user how this key file is actually being used. By default any distribution will just open an interactive dialog asking for the credentials at boot time!
Specify which LUKS version should be used. If not set and by default luks is used. The specification of the LUKS version allows using a different set of luksformat options. To investigate the differences between the two please consult the cryptsetup manual page. Specifies the image blocksize in bytes which has to match the logical blocksize of the target storage device. By default Bytes is used, which works on many disks.
You can obtain the blocksize from the SSZ column in the output of the following command:. Indicate if the target disk for oem images is deployed to a removable device e. This only affects the EFI setup if requested and in the end avoids the creation of a custom boot menu entry in the firmware of the target machine.
By default the target disk is expected to be non-removable. Request a spare partition right before the root partition of the requested size. The attribute takes a size value and allows a unit in MB or GB, e. If no unit is given the value is considered to be mbytes. A spare partition can only be configured for the disk image type oem. Specify mount point for spare partition in the system. Can only be configured for the disk image type oem. Specify filesystem for spare partition in the system.
Specify filesystem attributes for the spare partition. Attributes can be specified as comma separated list. Currently the attributes no-copy-on-write and synchronous-updates are available. Specify if the spare partition should be the last one in the partition table.
Can only be configured for the oem type with oem-resize switched off. By default the root partition is the last one and the spare partition lives before it. With this attribute that setup can be toggled. Because of that moving the spare part at the end of the disk is only applied if oem-resize is switched off.
Specifies which method to use for persistent device names. By default by-uuid is used. The information is placed in the integrity metadata block. The format of this key argument is:. As of now this defaults to:. All subsequent parameters are taken from the flags field of the dm-integrity superblock.
For the oem type only, specifies to create a dm verity hash from the number of given blocks or all placed at the end of the root filesystem For later verification of the device, the credentials information produced by veritysetup from the cryptsetup tools are needed. This data as of now is only printed as debugging information to the build log file. A concept to persistently store the verification metadata as part of the partition s will be a next step.
For the oem type only, specifies to use an overlayfs based root filesystem consisting out of a squashfs compressed read-only root filesystem combined with a write-partition or tmpfs. The optional kernel boot parameter rd. In this mode all written data is temporary until reboot of the system. The kernel boot parameter rd.
That size basically configures the amount of space available for writing new data during the runtime of the system. By default the persistent write-partition is used. The available space for the write partition is that size reduced by the size the squashfs read-only system needs.
For the oem type only, allows to specify if the extra read-write partition in an overlayroot setup should be created or not. By default the partition is created and the kiwi-overlay dracut module also expect it to be present. Specifies the size in MB of the partition which stores the squashfs compressed read-only root filesystem in an overlayroot setup.
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